Women at work in the United States since 1860: An analysis of unreported family workers

  title={Women at work in the United States since 1860: An analysis of unreported family workers},
  author={Barry R. Chiswick and RaeAnn Halenda Robinson},
  journal={Explorations in Economic History},
Abstract Estimated labor force participation rates among free women in the pre-Civil War period were exceedingly low. This is due, in part, to cultural or societal expectations of the role of women and the lack of thorough enumeration by Census takers. This paper develops an augmented labor force participation rate for free women in 1860 and compares it with the augmented rate for 1920 and today. Our methodology identifies women who are likely providing informal and unenumerated labor for… 

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