Women and the Wild: Gender Socialization in Wilderness Recreation Advertising

  title={Women and the Wild: Gender Socialization in Wilderness Recreation Advertising},
  author={Jamie Nichole McNiel and Deborah A. Harris and Kristi McLeod Fondren},
  journal={Gender Issues},
Women are underrepresented in wilderness recreation despite the numerous benefits such activities provide to mental, physical, and emotional health. Several theories have been proposed linking women’s beliefs about their competence in outdoor spaces, fears of victimization, and concerns over retaining femininity to their lack of participation. We explore media representations of wilderness recreation as a possible agent in the gender socialization process that dissuades women from participation… Expand
Outdoor Recreation Increases Self-Confidence in Women
The potential benefits of participating in physical activity in the outdoors are known to be highly therapeutic and empowering. The last two decades have seen an increase in outdoor recreationExpand
Women and the Wilderness: a Review of Barriers to Participation, Current Coping Strategies, and Guidance for Future Programs
This literature review discusses the obstacles that women face in participating in outdoor recreation, the ways in which they are currently navigating these obstacles, and discusses how the currentExpand
Delegitimizing wilderness as the man cave: The role of social media in female wilderness empowerment
Historically, American wilderness has been conceived as a profoundly masculine landscape and a threat to femininity. Early wilderness discourse stressed landscapes of risk and danger, certainly noExpand
Young, Wild, and Female: Gendered Experiences at an Outdoor Adventure Camp
The outdoors and activities associated with them have historically been the domain of men, and studies have shown women to face unique challenges both to entering and continuing their participationExpand
Curating a public self: exploring social media images of women in the outdoors.
Two social media posts (Highland, 2015; Johnson, 2015) about the authenticity of women’s experiences in the outdoors fueled an intense dialogue among the authors of this paper. These posts sparkedExpand
Mirrored Tensions: A Mother–Daughter Introspection on Gendered Experiences in Outdoor Recreation
This autoethnographic chapter explores the narratives of a mother (Teresa) and daughter (Stephanie) as active participants in the field of outdoor recreation. The discussion in this chapter seeks toExpand
‘It’s never turned me back’: female mountain guides’ constraint negotiation
ABSTRACT Females participate in outdoor adventure recreation at lower rates than males for a variety of reasons including societal gender expectations, a lack of exposure, and fear. ResearchExpand
(In) equality in the outdoors: gender perspective on recreation and tourism media in the Swedish mountains
ABSTRACT This paper examines gender differences in participation in various outdoor recreation and tourism activities in the Swedish mountain region, and how these activities are portrayed from aExpand
The “F” word: Feminism in outdoor education
Women have embarked on outdoor careers believing the profession to be a level playing field and one that offers occupational alternatives to traditional sporting activities and educationalExpand
Justice for All: Women in Outdoor Education
Maintenance of normative gender roles combined with societal expectations leads to the subjugation of women in the outdoors. These expectations are reinforced by those in the media, who perpetuateExpand


Women, Wilderness, and Everyday Life: A Documentation of the Connection between Wilderness Recreation and Women's Everyday Lives
Past research provides evidence that outdoor recreation can aid in our deconstruction of gender and gender stereotyping (Henderson, Bialeschki, Shaw, & Freysinger, 1996). Outcomes from recreationalExpand
The Gendered “Nature” of the Urban Outdoors
Women who participate in outdoor recreational activities reap many physical and emotional benefits from their experiences. However, gender-related feelings of objectification, vulnerability, and fearExpand
Living the Paradox: Female Athletes Negotiate Femininity and Muscularity
Sportswomen live in 2 cultures: the sport culture that is inherently masculine and the larger social culture where femininity is celebrated for women. In this investigation, which was grounded inExpand
Apartheid in the Great Outdoors: American Advertising and the Reproduction of a Racialized Outdoor Leisure Identity
This article provides evidence of a racialized outdoor leisure identity perpetuated in magazine advertisements. The evidence is based on a content analysis of 4000+ advertisements from threeExpand
Constructing Masculinity and Women's Fear in Public Space in Irvine, California
Fear in public spaces negatively impacts women's lives. Even when danger is low, the idea of women as endangered in public space endures—due, in part, to its centrality in the construction of genderExpand
The meaning of adventurous activities for ‘women in the outdoors’
Abstract Adventurous activities are growing in popularity as a form of leisure and recreation, yet many non-participants find it difficult to understand what motivates people to seek out situationsExpand
Wilderness Therapy for Women: The Power of Adventure
Contents Introduction * Nuestra Hermana * I. Theoretical Perspectives * Wilderness Therapy: What Makes It Empowering for Women? * Self Control: The Key to Adventure? Towards a Model of the AdventureExpand
Outdoor Recreation Constraints: An Examination of Race, Gender, and Rural Dwelling
We assess whether traditionally marginalized groups in American society (African-Americans, women, rural dwellers) perceive more constraints to outdoor recreation participation than other groups. AExpand
Women, Sport, and Culture
This is the most comprehensive collection of articles available on women, sport, and culture. The book features 24 selections from various feminist positions that examine the relation between sportExpand
Women and Adventure Recreation: Reconstructing Leisure Constraints and Adventure Experiences to Negotiate Continuing Participation
This paper presents results from a study of women with a history of participation in adventure recreation. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and 6-month activity diaries were gathered from 42 womenExpand