Women's Underrepresentation in the U.S. Congress

  title={Women's Underrepresentation in the U.S. Congress},
  author={Kira Sanbonmatsu},
Women's elective office-holding stands at an all-time high in the United States. Yet women are far from parity. This underrepresentation is surprising given that more women than men vote. Gender–as a feature of both society and politics–has always worked alongside race to determine which groups possess the formal and informal resources and opportunities critical for winning elective office. But how gender connects to office-holding is not fixed; instead, women's access to office has been shaped… 

Women’s Equality and the COVID-19 Caregiving Crisis

  • Mala Htun
  • Economics
    Perspectives on Politics
  • 2021
Although women’s demands for support seem to have pushed the Biden administration to propose more expansive family policies, stereotypes and norms that marginalize care work and care workers within families and across the economy also need to change to achieve equality for women.

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ABSTRACT Black women have been historically excluded from Congress and the policymaking power available in the institution. This essay shares details about the 52 Black women who have navigated this



Where Women Run: Gender and Party in the American States

  • T. Osborn
  • Political Science
    Perspectives on Politics
  • 2007
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Scholarship on women of color in electoral politics is expanding. However, the relationship between political parties and the candidacies of women of color has largely been overlooked. Drawing on

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While the number of African-American elected officials has increased over the last four decades, Blacks remain underrepresented at all levels of government. Even more striking is the relatively small

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Women have gained access to elected office in record numbers in Latin America, and evidence suggests that they are acting to advance women’s rights (see, e.g., Schwindt-Bayer 2006, 2009; Htun et al.

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To date, we are unaware to what extent gains in women's legislative representation have reached minority women. To facilitate cross-national research on minority women in politics, I present and