With Sadness Comes Accuracy; With Happiness, False Memory

  title={With Sadness Comes Accuracy; With Happiness, False Memory},
  author={Justin Storbeck and Gerald L. Clore},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={785 - 791}
The Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm lures people to produce false memories. Two experiments examined whether induced positive or negative moods would influence this false memory effect. The affect-as-information hypothesis predicts that, on the one hand, positive affective cues experienced as task-relevant feedback encourage relational processing during encoding, which should enhance false memory effects. On the other hand, negative affective cues are hypothesized to encourage item-specific… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Affect influences false memories at encoding: evidence from recognition data.
It is concluded that negative affective states promote item-specific processing, which reduces false memories in a similar way as using an explicitly guided cognitive control strategy.
The effect of mood on confidence in false memories
The goal of this study was to examine the effect of mood on suggestibility in the misinformation paradigm. To investigate the relative effects of valence and arousal, as well as affect-specific
Mood impedes monitoring of emotional false memories: evidence for the associative theories
Investigation of whether warnings provided at the time of retrieval would reduce emotional false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm found that retrieval warnings reduced false recognition, regardless of the valence of the to-be-remembered information or participants’ mood.
Mood-congruent false memories in the DRM paradigm
This study investigated the creation of mood-congruent false memories within the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm using recall and recognition of critical lures as performance measures.
If You're Happy and You Know It: Positive Moods Reduce Age-Related Differences in False Memory.
In negative moods, adolescents and adults falsely recalled more negative information than did children, showing the typical developmental reversal effect, but this effect was eliminated when participants were in positive moods.
When Being Sad Improves Memory Accuracy: The Role of Mood in Inadvertent Plagiarism
Compared to happy mood, sad mood leads to a decrease in source memory errors when mood is induced before encoding, but not when mood is induced before retrieval. This is consistent with the notion
Negative affect promotes encoding of and memory for details at the expense of the gist: Affect, encoding, and false memories
It is demonstrated that negative affective cues promote item-specific processing reducing false memories, similar to that of the negative mood condition.
Enhancement of False Memory for Negative Material in Dysphoria: Mood Congruency or Response Bias?
Although there is an extensive literature on the effects of depression and dysphoria on memory accuracy, few studies have examined the effects of depression or dysphoria on false memory. This study
Investigating the mechanisms fuelling reduced false recall of emotional material
We investigated false memory for emotional word lists using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm. Participants viewed negative, positive, and neutral lists of semantic associates matched on backward
The effects of mood and retrieval cues on semantic memory and metacognition.
It is found that mood does not affect the likelihood of different metac cognitive judgments associated with the retrieval of semantic information, but that, in some cases, having retrieval cues increases accuracy of these metacognitive judgments.


Mood and the use of scripts: does a happy mood really lead to mindlessness?
A pattern of findings indicates higher reliance on general knowledge structures under happy rather than sad moods, incompatible with the assumption that happy moods decrease either cognitive capacity or processing motivation in general, which would predict impaired secondary-task performance.
Why distinctive information reduces false memories: evidence for both impoverished relational-encoding and distinctiveness heuristic accounts.
  • A. Hege, C. Dodson
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2004
The results from a postrecall recognition test provide evidence in favor of the distinctiveness heuristic, as the impoverished relational-encoding account suggests, critical lures appear less likely to come to mind after picture encoding than they do after word encoding.
Attending to the Big Picture: Mood and Global Versus Local Processing of Visual Information
Two experiments employed image-based tasks to test the hypothesis that happier moods promote a greater focus on the forest and sadder moods a greater focus on the trees. The hypothesis was based on
“If I had said it I would have remembered it: Reducing false memories with a distinctiveness heuristic
It is suggested that people who said words at study employed a distinctiveness heuristic during the test whereby they demanded access to distinctive say information in order to judge an item as old.
Integration of emotion and cognition in the lateral prefrontal cortex
  • J. Gray, T. Braver, M. Raichle
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
Task-related neural activity in bilateral PFC showed a predicted pattern: an Emotion × Stimulus crossover interaction, with no main effects, with activity predicting task performance, indicating that emotion and higher cognition can be truly integrated.
Emotional modulation of cognitive control: approach-withdrawal states double-dissociate spatial from verbal two-back task performance.
  • J. Gray
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. General
  • 2001
The results suggest that approach-withdrawal states can have selective influences on components of cognitive control, possibly on a hemispheric basis and support and extend several frameworks for conceptualizing emotion-cognition interactions.
Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.
False memories—either remembering events that never happened, or remembering them quite differently from the way they happened—have recently captured the attention of both psychologists and the