With Arms Wide Shut: Threat Perception, Norm Reception, and Mobilized Resistance to LGBT Rights

  title={With Arms Wide Shut: Threat Perception, Norm Reception, and Mobilized Resistance to LGBT Rights},
  author={Phillip M. Ayoub},
  journal={Journal of Human Rights},
  pages={337 - 362}
This article utilizes original survey and interview data to explore why norms governing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights mobilize an active resistance in some cases and not in others. Based on a comparison of Poland and Slovenia, this article shows that differing perceptions of threat define the way international norms are received in distinct domestic realms. Threat perception is heightened in cases where religion is historically embedded in the essence of the popular… Expand
Queer Rights and the Triangulation of Western Exceptionalism
Given recent advances in queer visibility and rights within Western countries and internationally, the assumption around sexual issues is one of progress. Conversely, resistance to lesbian, gay,Expand
LGBT Rights in Bosnia: The Challenge of Nationalism in the Context of Europeanization
Abstract Nationalism has been one of the domestic constraints to progress on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights, especially in the Balkans that are dealing with multiple postwarExpand
Crafting radical opposition or reproducing homonormativity? Consociationalism and LGBT rights activism in Lebanon
ABSTRACT There is little research on the struggles surrounding gay rights in divided societies emerging from intrastate conflict and characterized by consociational power sharing, which allocatesExpand
When States Come Out: Europe's Sexual Minorities and the Politics of Visibility
In the last two decades, the LGBT movement has gained momentum that is arguably unprecedented in speed and suddenness when compared to other human rights movements. This book investigates the recentExpand
Resisting human rights through securitization: Russia and Hungary against LGBT rights
Abstract Contributing to the literature on norm resistance and backlash, this article explores the phenomenon of norm immunization, that is, the creation of legal barriers by a state with the purposeExpand
When Do Opponents of Gay Rights Mobilize? Explaining Political Participation in Times of Backlash against Liberalism
Existing research suggests that supporters of gay rights have outmobilized their opponents, leading to policy changes in advanced industrialized democracies. At the same time, we observe theExpand
The Journey of LGBT Rights: Norm Diffusion and its Challenges in EU Seeking States: Bosnia and Serbia
ABSTRACT: This article investigates and compares the extent to which LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) rights norms have diffused and become empowered within Bosnia and Serbia as part ofExpand
Civil Society, ‘Traditional Values’ and LGBT Resistance to Heteronormative Rights Hegemony: Analysis of the UN Universal Periodic Review in the Russian Federation
Abstract This study of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights in the Russian Federation uses frame analysis of civil society input into the UN Universal Periodic Review. It reveals a starkExpand
A Growing Queer Divide: The Divergence between Transnational Advocacy Networks and Foreign Aid in Diffusing LGBT Policies
Despite years of success, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) norms are becoming increasingly polarized across the global landscape—with some countries strongly complying with newExpand
World Society Divided: Divergent Trends in State Responses to Sexual Minorities and Their Reflection in Public Attitudes
Abstract:This paper extends existing world society literature on the international diffusion of norms by examining divergence in world society. First, we identify polarizing trends in nationalExpand


The Global Right Wing and the Clash of World Politics: Contents
Human rights, environmentalism, and global justice: these transnational movements today face fierce opposition from networks of conservative activists promoting contrary aims. In this groundbreakingExpand
Same‐Sex Unions: The Globalization of an Idea
What explains why a majority of western democracies have adopted same-sex union (SSU) laws in the past decade and a half? I argue that this startling trend toward policy convergence in part can beExpand
Nationality and sexuality: homophobic discourse and the 'national threat' in contemporary Latvia
. This article seeks to understand why attitudes towards homosexuality in Latvia appear to be more intolerant than in all other EU member states. It argues that, while the impact of religion, theExpand
Contested norms in new-adopter states: International determinants of LGBT rights legislation
This article is concerned with the question of why lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) rights legislation is introduced at higher levels in some cases and less so in others. To address thisExpand
Minority rights after EU enlargement: A comparison of antigay politics in Poland and Latvia
This paper examines the recent backlash against gay rights in Poland and Latvia as a test case of the depth and breadth of ‘europeanization’ in the new postcommunist member-states of the EuropeanExpand
Looking at Pictures of Gay Men: Political Uses of Homophobia in Contemporary Poland
During the recent period of rightwing rule, sometimes referred to as the Fourth Republic (2005 – 7), Poland developed a reputation for homophobia, prejudice against sexual minorities becoming itsExpand
Out of the Closet behind the Wall: Sexual Politics and Social Change in the GDR
The search for avenues to express changing cultural values has shaped recent politics in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). During the past decade tens of thousands of GDR citizens became involvedExpand
International terrorism as a force of homogenization? A constructivist approach to understanding cross-national threat perceptions and responses
Has the emergence of international jihadist terrorism led to common threat perceptions and responses in Europe? The article argues that the homogenization thesis is based around a misguidedExpand
Repressing Protest: Threat and Weakness in the European Context, 1975-1989
*† Research on state repression of protest focuses on two key factors: threat and weakness. States repress protest events when they threaten state authorities and social norms (threat), when theyExpand
How the Religious Right Shaped Lesbian and Gay Activism
Virtually every academic in the United States, not to mention the reading public, knows too little about Iran (the fact that this is even truer for Iraq explains part of the reasons for thatExpand