Wise Reasoning Benefits From Emodiversity, Irrespective of Emotional Intensity

  title={Wise Reasoning Benefits From Emodiversity, Irrespective of Emotional Intensity},
  author={Igor Grossmann and Harrison Oakes and Henri Carlo Santos},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Psychology: General},
The role of emotions in wise reasoning is not well understood. On the one hand, work on emotional regulation suggests that downregulating intense emotions may lead to wiser reasoning. On the other hand, emerging work suggests that recognizing and balancing emotions provides critical insights into life experiences, suggesting an alternative path to wiser reasoning. We present a series of observational, diary, and experimental studies (N = 3,678 participants) addressing these possibilities… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Wise Reasoning About the Future Is Associated With Adaptive Interpersonal Feelings After Relational Challenges

Two prospective studies examine how wise reasoning about an anticipated conflict interaction—intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration and integration of different

Emodiversity, health, and well-being in the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) daily diary study.

Findings illustrate inconsistencies across studies in whether negative emodiversity is associated with better or worse outcomes and raise further questions about how the construct of emod diversity can be better refined.

The Wisdom Researchers and the Elephant: An Integrative Model of Wise Behavior

  • J. GlückNic M. Weststrate
  • Psychology
    Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 2022
This article proposes an integrative model of wise behavior in real life. While current research findings depend considerably on how wisdom is conceptualized and measured, there are strong conceptual

What Do We Know About Aging and Emotion Regulation?

  • D. Isaacowitz
  • Psychology
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2022
Older adults report surprisingly positive affective experience. The idea that older adults are better at emotion regulation has emerged as an intuitively appealing explanation for why they report

Emotion as a source of moral understanding in conservation

Conservationists should accept that emotions like compassion provide insights that can help them understand and navigate their moral lives, and emotion in general should be affirmed and embraced by conservationists for the novel and essential insights they contribute to conservation ethics.

Variety is the spice of life: How emotional diversity is associated with better student engagement and achievement.

Positive emodiversity-diversity of positive emotional experiences-was an independent predictor of academic engagement and school achievement over and above mean levels of positive and negative emotions.

The Psychological Mechanisms Underlying Solomon’s Paradox: Impact of Mood and Self-Transcendence

Solomon’s paradox of wise reasoning, in which performance of wisdom differs when reasoning on an issue in one’s own life vs. another’s life, has been supported by robust evidence. However, the

The impact of mixed emotions on judgements: a naturalistic study during the FIFA world cup

It is found that participants who felt more mixed emotions at the end of a match made significantly more likely score predictions in the following match, indicating that experiencing stronger mixed emotions subsequently predicted more reasonable judgements.

Rich and Balanced Experiences of Daily Emotions are Associated with Activity Diversity Across Adulthood.

Findings suggest that the association between activity diversity and emodiversity exists across adulthood, underscoring the value of including information about daily activities when examining emotional experiences across the lifespan.

Predictors and consequences of intellectual humility

In a time of societal acrimony, psychological scientists have turned to a possible antidote — intellectual humility. Interest in intellectual humility comes from diverse research areas, including



"Wise reasoning benefits from emodiversity, irrespective of emotional intensity": Correction to Grossmann, Oakes, and Santos (2019).

  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. General
  • 2019
Wise reasoning benefits from emodiversity, irrespective of emotional intensity, and can also benefit from a rich and balanced emotional life, demonstrating that wise reasoning does not necessarily require uniform emotional downregulation.

Wise Reasoning in the Face of Everyday Life Challenges

How stable vs. dynamic is wisdom in daily life? We conducted a daily diary study of wise reasoning (WR) by recording people’s reflections on daily challenges in terms of three facets: intellectual

Unpacking Emotion Differentiation

Being able to carefully perceive and distinguish the rich complexity in emotional experiences is a key component of psychological interventions. We review research in clinical, social, and health

Emodiversity and the emotional ecosystem.

Two cross-sectional studies across more than 37,000 respondents demonstrate that emodiversity is an independent predictor of mental and physical health--such as decreased depression and doctor's visits--over and above mean levels of positive and negative emotion.

A route to well-being: intelligence versus wise reasoning.

With a random sample of Americans, it is found that wise reasoning is associated with greater life satisfaction, less negative affect, better social relationships, less depressive rumination, more positive versus negative words used in speech, and greater longevity.

Poignancy: mixed emotional experience in the face of meaningful endings.

Findings suggest that poignancy is an emotional experience associated with meaningful ending, thus yielding mixed emotional states.

Hard-Earned Wisdom: Exploratory Processing of Difficult Life Experience Is Positively Associated With Wisdom

This study suggests that developmental pathways in the wake of adversity may be partially determined by how individualsSelf-reflectively process significant life experiences, and wisdom was positively associated with exploratory processing of difficult life experience.

The relationship between self-distancing and the duration of negative and positive emotional experiences in daily life.

This work operationalizes adaptive self-reflection in terms of a reduction in the intensity of negative emotion, ignoring other important aspects of emotional experience such as emotion duration, and examines the relationship between self-distancing and the duration of daily negative and positive emotions using a daily diary methodology.

Wisdom in Context

  • I. Grossmann
  • Psychology
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2017
Focus on contextual factors sheds new light on the processes underlying wise thought and its development, helps to integrate different approaches to studying wisdom, and has implications for measurement and development of wisdom-enhancing interventions.

Emotional complexity: Clarifying definitions and cultural correlates.

The role of dialectical beliefs and interdependence in explaining cultural differences in EC according to both definitions is explored and accounted for more cross-cultural and individual variance in EC measures than did dialecticism.