Wisdom, Bias, and Balance: Toward a Process-Sensitive Measurement of Wisdom-Related Cognition

  title={Wisdom, Bias, and Balance: Toward a Process-Sensitive Measurement of Wisdom-Related Cognition},
  author={Justin Peter Brienza and Franki Y. H. Kung and Henri Carlo Santos and D. Ramona Bobocel and Igor Grossmann},
  journal={Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of… 

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