Wired on hormones: endocrine regulation of hypothalamic development

  title={Wired on hormones: endocrine regulation of hypothalamic development},
  author={Richard B. Simerly},
  journal={Current Opinion in Neurobiology},
  • R. Simerly
  • Published 1 February 2005
  • Biology
  • Current Opinion in Neurobiology

Developmental programming of hypothalamic feeding circuits

This review summarizes recent advances regarding the post‐natal development of ‘metabolic’ projections from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to provide new insight into the mechanisms by which alteration of perinatal nutrition may have long‐term consequences on body weight regulation and adiposity in the offspring.

Hypothalamic substrates of metabolic imprinting

Mechanisms underlying estrogen-induced sexual differentiation in the hypothalamus.

Cross-talk between direct effects of estrogen on gene transcription and its effects on signaling pathways should be examined in future to elucidate mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation in the hypothalamus.

Central and Peripheral Regulation of Food Intake and Physical Activity: Pathways and Genes

A changing environment and lifestyle on the background of evolutionary engraved and perinatally imprinted physiological response patterns is the foremost explanation for the current obesity epidemic.

Sex steroid hormones-related structural plasticity in the human hypothalamus

Brain Sex Differences and Hormone Influences: A Moving Experience?

Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation.

Plasticity of neuroendocrine systems

In 1929, Harvey Cushing said of the hypothalamus, ‘Here in this wellconcealed spot, almost to be covered with a thumb nail, lies the very main spring of primitive existence – vegetative, emotional



Minireview: Leptin and development of hypothalamic feeding circuits.

Leptin may function to organize formation of hypothalamic circuitry in much the same way that sex steroids act on sexually dimorphic circuits, and perturbations in perinatal nutrition that alter leptin levels may have enduring consequences for the formation and function of circuits regulating food intake and body weight.

Wired for reproduction: organization and development of sexually dimorphic circuits in the mammalian forebrain.

  • R. Simerly
  • Biology, Psychology
    Annual review of neuroscience
  • 2002
This review focuses on the organization of interconnected limbic-hypothalamic pathways that participate in the neural control of reproduction and summarizes what is known about the developmental neurobiology of these pathways.

Trophic Action of Leptin on Hypothalamic Neurons That Regulate Feeding

The results suggest that leptin plays a neurotrophic role during the development of the hypothalamus and that this activity is restricted to a neonatal critical period that precedes leptin's acute regulation of food intake in adults.

Unraveling the central nervous system pathways underlying responses to leptin

The physiological mechanisms underlying leptin action are considered, along with several novel hypothalamic neuropeptides that affect food intake and body weight, and a model linking populations of leptin-responsive neurons with effectors underlying leptin's endocrine, autonomic and behavioral effects is proposed.

Central nervous system control of food intake

A model is described that delineates the roles of individual hormonal and neuropeptide signalling pathways in the control of food intake and the means by which obesity can arise from inherited or acquired defects in their function.

Electrophysiological Actions of Peripheral Hormones on Melanocortin Neurons

Abstract: Neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) appear to be sites of convergence of central and peripheral signals of energy stores, and profoundly modulate the activity of the

The floating blueprint of hypothalamic feeding circuits

These unexpected findings indicate that new therapeutic avenues might emerge from a complete understanding of synaptic plasticity in the hypothalamus, and that the hypothalamic wiring of feeding circuits changes continuously in the face of varying metabolic parameters.

Sexual Differentiation of the Brain: Genes, Estrogen, and Neurotrophic Factors

It was concluded that the axogenic effect of E2 depends on interaction between neurons and glia from a target region and that neurons from fetal male donors appear to mature earlier than neurons from females, a differentiated response that takes place prior to divergent exposure to gonadal secretions.

Formation of Projection Pathways from the Arcuate Nucleus of the Hypothalamus to Hypothalamic Regions Implicated in the Neural Control of Feeding Behavior in Mice

New insight is provided into development of hypothalamic circuits and an anatomical basis for the delayed postnatal regulation of food intake and body weight by leptin is suggested.