Wired on hormones: endocrine regulation of hypothalamic development

@article{Simerly2005WiredOH,
  title={Wired on hormones: endocrine regulation of hypothalamic development},
  author={Richard B. Simerly},
  journal={Current Opinion in Neurobiology},
  year={2005},
  volume={15},
  pages={81-85}
}
  • R. Simerly
  • Published 1 February 2005
  • Biology
  • Current Opinion in Neurobiology

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Sex steroid hormones-related structural plasticity in the human hypothalamus

Brain Sex Differences and Hormone Influences: A Moving Experience?

TLDR
Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation.

Plasticity of neuroendocrine systems

In 1929, Harvey Cushing said of the hypothalamus, ‘Here in this wellconcealed spot, almost to be covered with a thumb nail, lies the very main spring of primitive existence – vegetative, emotional
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Leptin may function to organize formation of hypothalamic circuitry in much the same way that sex steroids act on sexually dimorphic circuits, and perturbations in perinatal nutrition that alter leptin levels may have enduring consequences for the formation and function of circuits regulating food intake and body weight.

Wired for reproduction: organization and development of sexually dimorphic circuits in the mammalian forebrain.

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This review focuses on the organization of interconnected limbic-hypothalamic pathways that participate in the neural control of reproduction and summarizes what is known about the developmental neurobiology of these pathways.

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The results suggest that leptin plays a neurotrophic role during the development of the hypothalamus and that this activity is restricted to a neonatal critical period that precedes leptin's acute regulation of food intake in adults.

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The physiological mechanisms underlying leptin action are considered, along with several novel hypothalamic neuropeptides that affect food intake and body weight, and a model linking populations of leptin-responsive neurons with effectors underlying leptin's endocrine, autonomic and behavioral effects is proposed.

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Electrophysiological Actions of Peripheral Hormones on Melanocortin Neurons

Abstract: Neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) appear to be sites of convergence of central and peripheral signals of energy stores, and profoundly modulate the activity of the

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TLDR
These unexpected findings indicate that new therapeutic avenues might emerge from a complete understanding of synaptic plasticity in the hypothalamus, and that the hypothalamic wiring of feeding circuits changes continuously in the face of varying metabolic parameters.

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It was concluded that the axogenic effect of E2 depends on interaction between neurons and glia from a target region and that neurons from fetal male donors appear to mature earlier than neurons from females, a differentiated response that takes place prior to divergent exposure to gonadal secretions.

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New insight is provided into development of hypothalamic circuits and an anatomical basis for the delayed postnatal regulation of food intake and body weight by leptin is suggested.
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