Wingbeat frequency of birds in steady cruising flight: new data and improved predictions

@article{Pennycuick1996WingbeatFO,
  title={Wingbeat frequency of birds in steady cruising flight: new data and improved predictions},
  author={Pennycuick},
  journal={The Journal of experimental biology},
  year={1996},
  volume={199 Pt 7},
  pages={1613-8}
}
  • Pennycuick
  • Published 1996 in The Journal of experimental biology
Wingbeat frequencies of 15 species of birds, observed in the field in level, cruising flight were compared with predicted frequencies, calculated according to the formula derived from an earlier sample of 32 species. All of the data were collected by the author, using the same methods throughout. The new observations were predicted well for species with low wingbeat frequencies, but were underestimated at the higher frequencies. The following revised proportionality gave the best fit of the… CONTINUE READING

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