Wing Tracheation in Chrysopidae and Other Neuropterida (Insecta): A Resolution of the Confusion about Vein Fusion

@article{Breitkreuz2017WingTI,
  title={Wing Tracheation in Chrysopidae and Other Neuropterida (Insecta): A Resolution of the Confusion about Vein Fusion},
  author={Laura C.V. Breitkreuz and Shaun L. Winterton and Michael S. Engel},
  journal={American Museum Novitates},
  year={2017},
  pages={1 - 44}
}
ABSTRACT The wings of insects are one of their most prominent features and embody numerous characters and modifications congruent with the variety of their lifestyles. However, despite their evolutionary relevance, homology statements and nomenclature of wing structures remain understudied and sometimes confusing. Early studies on wing venation homologies often assumed Neuropterida (the superorder comprising the orders Raphidioptera, Megaloptera, and Neuroptera: snakeflies, alderflies and… 
Evolution of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): a molecular supermatrix approach
TLDR
A phylogenetic hypothesis is provided for the Chrysopidae family that recovers strong support for the monophyly of all subfamilies and resolves relationships among a large proportion of chrysopine genera.
Systematic palaeontology Order Neuroptera Linnaeus , 1758 Family Chrysopidae Schneider
TLDR
The late Eocene Baltic amber represents the oldest horizon where Chrysopinae and Nothochrysinae are found to coexist, and it is highly likely that Chrysopidae were extremely rare in these forests.
Evolution of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): an anchored phylogenomics approach
TLDR
A phylogeny of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) using anchored hybrid enrichment data is presented, and a strongly supported tree topologically congruent with recently published phylogenies, especially relationships amongst higher-level groups is recovered.
Evolution of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): an anchored phylogenomics approach
TLDR
A phylogeny of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) using anchored hybrid enrichment data is presented, recovering a strongly supported tree topologically congruent with recently published phylogenies, especially relationships amongst higher‐level groups.
The Megaloptera (Insecta: Neuropterida) of Colombia
TLDR
The knowledge of Megaloptera (Neuropterida) fauna of Colombia is updated and it was determined that 18 species grouped into three genera and two families are recognized to occur in the country.
Taxonomic notes on Babinskaiidae from the Cretaceous Burmese amber, with the description of a new species (Insecta, Neuroptera)
TLDR
A new species of Babinskaiidae is described from Cretaceous Burmese amber, namely Parababinskaia makarkini sp.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 139 REFERENCES
WING VENATION PATTERN OF PLECOPTERA ( INSECTA : NEOPTERA )
TLDR
This study provides a detailed morphological comparative study of the wing venation of the order Plecoptera, based on modern taxa and reveals that the arculus is not a posterior branch of the media but a secondarily strengthened crossvein, always present in hind wings and very generally in forewings.
Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg
The most primitive known pterygote terga, wing articulation, wings, and upper leg segments with exites, occur in gigantic Upper Carboniferous Paleodictyoptera, Homoiopteridae. Fossil features are
Dermaptera hindwing structure and folding: New evidence for familial, ordinal and superordinal relationships within Neoptera (Insecta)
TLDR
The evolution of the dermapteran wing-folding mechanism is discussed and the hindwing is presented as a working "origami" model, which will fold as in living earwigs, and the functional role of the wing base in wing folding is examined.
Homologisation of the anterior articular plate in the wing base of Ephemeroptera and Odonatoptera
TLDR
In the search for the sister group of modern Ephemerida, the evolutionary groundplan method was used to identify synapomorphies in wing articulation, including a derived anterior articular plate composed of four fused sclerites belonging to the precostal and costal rows.
Most Paleozoic Protorthoptera are ancestral hemipteroids: major wing braces as clues to a new phylogeny of Neoptera (Insecta)
TLDR
Typical hemipteroid head characters (inflated clypeus, styletal mouthparts) are here reported for "Protorthoptera" fossils and linked with the basic venational braces of hemipsteroid wings.
The steps towards an inconspicuous vein fusion documented in Stenosmylinae forewings (Neuroptera: Osmylidae)
TLDR
A complete transformation series ranging from the condition ‘ MP2 and CuA approximating’ to ‘MP2 andCuA fully fused, without distinct origin of MP2’, with intermediate conditions in which the origin ofMP2 has a cross-vein-like appearance is Documented.
Evidence for Carboniferous origin of the order Mantodea (Insecta: Dictyoptera) gained from forewing morphology
TLDR
The homology statement implies that the total-group Mantodea arose as soon as the Late Carboniferous, i.e. about 175 million years earlier than previously estimated, suggesting a survivorship of several main Pterygota lineages at the end-Permian extinction event higher than previously expected.
The phylogeny of lance lacewings (Neuroptera: Osmylidae)
TLDR
Divergence time analysis revealed that the Osmylidae originated during the Late Permian before the break‐up of the supercontinent Pangaea and that present generic distributions are not due to Gondwanan biogeographic events.
Origin and evolution of insect wings and their relation to metamorphosis, as documented by the fossil record
TLDR
All primitive Paleozoic pterygote nymphs are now known to have had articulated, freely movable wings reinforced by tubular veins, which suggests that the wings of early Pterygota were engaged in flapping movements, and that the immobilized, fixed, veinless wing pads of Recentnymphs have resulted from a later adaptation affecting only juveniles.
Relationships among coleopteran suborders and major endoneopteran lineages: Evidence from hind wing characters
TLDR
A phylogenetic analysis of the four coleopteran suborders, four other endoneopteran taxa and three neopteran outgroups is performed, and the special role and influence of the hind wing anojugal lobe on the diversification of Neoptera and Endoneoptera is discussed.
...
...