Wing-Assisted Incline Running and the Evolution of Flight

@article{Dial2003WingAssistedIR,
  title={Wing-Assisted Incline Running and the Evolution of Flight},
  author={Kenneth P Dial},
  journal={Science},
  year={2003},
  volume={299},
  pages={402 - 404}
}
  • K. Dial
  • Published 17 January 2003
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • Science
Flapping wings of galliform birds are routinely used to produce aerodynamic forces oriented toward the substrate to enhance hindlimb traction. Here, I document this behavior in natural and laboratory settings. Adult birds fully capable of aerial flight preferentially employ wing-assisted incline running (WAIR), rather than flying, to reach elevated refuges (such as cliffs, trees, and boulders). From the day of hatching and before attaining sustained aerial flight, developing ground birds use… 

Aerodynamics of wing-assisted incline running in birds

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...

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