Wing-Assisted Incline Running and the Evolution of Flight

@article{Dial2003WingAssistedIR,
  title={Wing-Assisted Incline Running and the Evolution of Flight},
  author={K. Dial},
  journal={Science},
  year={2003},
  volume={299},
  pages={402 - 404}
}
  • K. Dial
  • Published 2003
  • Geology, Medicine
  • Science
Flapping wings of galliform birds are routinely used to produce aerodynamic forces oriented toward the substrate to enhance hindlimb traction. Here, I document this behavior in natural and laboratory settings. Adult birds fully capable of aerial flight preferentially employ wing-assisted incline running (WAIR), rather than flying, to reach elevated refuges (such as cliffs, trees, and boulders). From the day of hatching and before attaining sustained aerial flight, developing ground birds use… Expand
Aerodynamics of wing-assisted incline running in birds
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The results reveal for the first time that lift from the wings, rather than wing inertia or profile drag, is primarily responsible for accelerating the body toward the substrate during WAIR, and that partially developed wings, not yet capable of flight, can produce useful lift duringWAIR. Expand
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It is concluded that WAIR remains a useful extant model for the evolutionary transition from terrestrial to aerial locomotion in birds because work and power requirements from the pectoralis increase incrementally during WAIR and from WAIR to flight. Expand
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Wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent, potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight. Expand
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The results suggest that the animal can execute different locomotor behaviors using a stereotypical wing beat and that the wing-shoulder joint permits a range of motion for the body orientation that is more plastic than previously appreciated. Expand
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3-D skeletal kinematics in chukars (Alectoris chukar) during WAIR (ascending with legs and wings) and ascending flight (AF, ascending with wings only) are quantified along comparable trajectories to improve the understanding of the form-functional relationship of the skeletal apparatus and joint morphology with a corresponding locomotor behavior. Expand
Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds
TLDR
Wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent, and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight. Expand
Animal aloft: the origins of aerial behavior and flight.
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Aerial control in the ancestrally wingless archaeognathans suggests that flight behavior preceded the origins of wings in hexapods, and the use of winglets and partial wings to effect aerial righting and maneuvers could select for enhanced appendicular motions, and ultimately lead to powered flight. Expand
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This paper investigates the wing performance of Caudipteryx, the most basal non-volant dinosaur with pennaceous feathered forelimbs by using modal effective mass theory and shows that the origin of the avian flight stroke should lie in a completely natural process of active locomotion on the ground. Expand
A fundamental avian wing-stroke provides a new perspective on the evolution of flight
TLDR
This work presents the first comparison of wing-stroke kinematics of the primary locomotor modes (descending flight and incline flap-running) that lead to level-flapping flight in juvenile ground birds throughout development and puts forth an ontogenetic-transitional wing hypothesis that posits that the incremental adaptive stages leading to the evolution of avian flight correspond behaviourally and morphologically to transitional stages observed in ontogenetics forms. Expand
Forelimb Posture in Dinosaurs and the Evolution of the Avian Flapping Flight-Stroke
  • R. Nudds, G. Dyke
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2009
TLDR
Calculations indicated that even moderate wing movements are enough to generate rudimentary thrust and that a propulsive flapping flight-stroke could have evolved via gradual incremental changes in wing movement and wing morphology. Expand
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Dial for their hard work and careful attention to detail while filming, testing, and caring for the birds over the past
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