Wine Descriptive Language Supports Cognitive Specificity of Chemical Senses

  title={Wine Descriptive Language Supports Cognitive Specificity of Chemical Senses},
  author={Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Brochet and Denis Dubourdieu},
  journal={Brain and Language},
In order to understand wine perception we analyzed tasting notes of four expert wine tasters. The analysis is based on co-occurrence calculations of words within the tasting notes using ALCESTE software. The results of such an analysis of one subject's notes give us word classes reflecting main text ideas and organization of the text. In the present paper we interpret these "results" as follows: (1) Class number and organization are different among experts so that each expert has his own… 
Uncovering the language of wine experts
A method for probing the language of wine reviews is proposed, and thus offer a means to enhance current vocabularies, and as a by-product question the general assumption that wine reviews are gibberish.
Demystifying wine tasting: Cognitive psychology's contribution.
  • W. Parr
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Food research international
  • 2019
This review highlights notable wine sensory research outcomes that make evident the importance of a taster's cognitive processes in their wine analysis and appreciation, including data providing evidence for colour-flavour perceptual bias, prototypical thinking, knowledge-based wine judgments, and the close links between olfactory memory, autobiographical memory and emotion.
Dimensions of Expertise in Wine Evaluation*
  • R. Ashton
  • Psychology
    Journal of Wine Economics
  • 2016
Abstract This article explores the question of what distinguishes novices from experts in wine evaluation. Is it experts’ superior sensory abilities related to taste and smell, their superior
Wine expertise: perceptual learning in the chemical senses
Researchers have long been interested in the kinds of perceptual learning that take place in those who acquire wine expertise. However, progress in this field has been hampered by differing accounts
Very quaffable and great fun: Applying NLP to wine reviews
Whether expert wine tasters provide consistent descriptions in terms of perceived sensory attributes of wine, both across various wine types and colors is examined, with results that show classifiers perform very well when predicting red and white wines, whereas it seems more challenging to distinguish rose wines.
Access to wine experts' long-term memory to decipher an ill-defined sensory concept: the case of green red wine
The present study aims to understand an ill-defined sensory concept by a long-term memory-based strategy with Spanish winemakers from four wine regions using “green wine” as a case study. A total of
The knowing nose: the role of knowledge in wine expertise
Wine expertise refers here to a superior ability to discriminate between, recognize and describe different wines. Previous studies give only limited support to the possibility that such expertise
The Odor of Colors: Can Wine Experts and Novices Distinguish the Odors of White, Red, and Rosé Wines?
Recently, several papers have investigated color-induced olfactory biases in wine tasting. In particular, Morrot et al. (Brain and Language, 79, 309–320, 2001) reported that visual information mostly
Discovering the Language of Wine Reviews: A Text Mining Account
The results show that wine experts do share a common vocabulary to describe wines and they use this in a consistent way, which makes it possible to automatically predict wine characteristics based on the review text alone, which means that odors and flavors may be more expressible in language than typically acknowledged.
Impact of learning and training on wine expertise: a review
Experts are able to conduct both analytical and holistic tasks involved in evaluating wine quality. Although there is no standard for wine-tasting training, a number of papers have reported on


Perceptual Learning in Olfaction Professional Wine Tasters versus Controls
The results showed that whereas wine tasters were not better than controls on detection, they were superior to controls on discrimination and identification, the latter due to only a few odors, suggesting that generalized perceptual learning may take place in discrimination but not in identification.
Flavor Description of White Wine by “Expert” and Nonexpert Wine Consumers
Two groups of wine consumers described the flavor characteristics of six unlabeled white wines and attempted to match descriptions to wines in subsequent tastings. One group was experienced in
Talking About Wine.
People frequently comment about wine when drinking it; but to what extent do they mean the same things by the words they use ? A structural analysis of the wine vocabulary used by wine experts is
Cognition and olfaction: a review.
Examines research in cognitive psychology, which has in the past paid little attention to the olfactory modality. But there is now a significant body of literature on the role of the olfactory system
Multidimensional analysis of twenty-one odors.
The results showed clear evidence for the existence of individual odor spaces, but in apparent contradiction to related studies in the literature individual differences were too large to establish a representative odor space for the whole group.
Influence of training and experience on the perception of multicomponent odor mixtures.
  • A. Livermore, D. G. Laing
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 1996
The results indicated that for both panels only 3 or 4 components of a complex mixture could be discriminated and identified and that this capacity could not be increased by training, and the limit may be imposed physiologically or by processing constraints.
Basic objects in natural categories
Abstract Categorizations which humans make of the concrete world are not arbitrary but highly determined. In taxonomies of concrete objects, there is one level of abstraction at which the most basic
Flavor processing: more than the sum of its parts
It is found significant CBF decreases in primary gustatory and secondary Gustatory and olfactory cortices during simultaneous presentation compared with independent presentations of identical stimuli, suggesting that flavor processing is not represented by a simple convergence of its component senses.
The capacity of humans to identify odors in mixtures
The results suggest that the capacity of humans to process information about odors perceived simultaneously may be limited, or that odors in mixtures blend to form a new odor with few of the characteristics of the constituent odors.
The influence of odor type on the discrimination and identification of odorants in multicomponent odor mixtures
Although the poor blenders were more easily discriminated, this superiority was displayed within a narrow range, and the ability of subjects to identify mixture components with either odor set was limited to approximately four.