Windows to the Soul? Deliberate Eye Contact as a Cue to Deceit

  title={Windows to the Soul? Deliberate Eye Contact as a Cue to Deceit},
  author={Samantha Mann and Aldert Vrij and Sharon Leal and P{\"a}r Anders Granhag and Lara Warmelink and Dave Forrester},
  journal={Journal of Nonverbal Behavior},
Although people overwhelmingly believe that liars avoid eye contact, meta-analyses of deception literature have shown a non-significant relationship between gaze and deception. In the present experiment we measured eye movements in an innovative way. We coded the extent to which interviewees deliberately made eye contact with the interviewer. Liars take their credibility less for granted than truth tellers. They therefore may have a greater desire to be convincing and hence more inclined to… Expand

Paper Mentions

Two heads are better than one? How to effectively use two interviewers to elicit cues to deception
Background. We examined the effect of a second interviewer's demeanour on cues to deception. We predicted that a supportive demeanour would be the most beneficial for eliciting verbal cues to deceit,Expand
Lying Eyes: Why Liars Seek Deliberate Eye Contact
Mann et al. (Mann, S., Vrij, A., Leal, S., Granhag, P. A., Warmelink, L., & Forrester, D. [2012]. Windows to the soul? Deliberate eye contact as a cue to deceit. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 36,Expand
Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements
It is found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. Expand
Saccadic eye movement rate as a cue to deceit
In the present experiment we considered a cue that has not been examined in nonverbal deception research before, non-visual saccadic eye movement rate. The psychological process as to why saccadicExpand
Detecting cues to deception from children's facial expressions: On the effectiveness of two visual manipulation techniques
The extent to which facial expressions may reveal whether a person is telling the truth or not is investigated, and it is revealed that the partial presentations of the face lead to more correct deception detection than the full face presentation. Expand
High stakes lies : identifying and using cues to deception and honesty in appeals for missing and murdered relatives
Deception is a near-universal human behaviour, and decades of psychological research have generated hundreds of studies investigating behaviours related to deception (often referred to as ‘cues toExpand
Eye spy a liar: the effect of deception on fixation-based measures of memory
The over-arching aim of this thesis was to evaluate a new experimental approach to detect recognition memory in liars, when recognition of familiar photographs was intentionally concealed. EyeExpand
The state of deception detection research: two perspectives used to uncover deception detection methods
People are sometimes deceptive, meaning that they “intentionally, knowingly, or purposefully mislead another person” (Levine, 2014, p. 37), despite potential negative relational consequencesExpand
High-Stakes Lies: Verbal and Nonverbal Cues to Deception in Public Appeals for Help with Missing or Murdered Relatives
Low ecological validity is a common limitation in deception studies. The present study investigated the real-life, high-stakes context of public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives.Expand
Reading Lies: Nonverbal Communication and Deception.
It is shown that the nonverbal cues to deceit discovered to date are faint and unreliable and that people are mediocre lie catchers when they pay attention to behavior. Expand


‘Look into my eyes’: can an instruction to maintain eye contact facilitate lie detection?
Abstract In two experiments, we tested the hypotheses that (a) the differences in nonverbal and verbal behaviour between liars and truth tellers will be greater when interviewees are instructed toExpand
The miscommunication of deception: An adaptive perspective
Abstract Undergraduates were videotaped as they told lies and truths about their last job. Later, these undergraduates viewed the videotape and tried to guess which of their fellow subject wereExpand
Outsmarting the Liars: Toward a Cognitive Lie Detection Approach
Five decades of lie detection research have shown that people’s ability to detect deception by observing behavior and listening to speech is limited. The problem is that cues to deception areExpand
Why do lie-catchers fail? A lens model meta-analysis of human lie judgments.
The results suggest that intuitive notions about deception are more accurate than explicit knowledge and that lie detection is more readily improved by increasing behavioral differences between liars and truth tellers than by informing lie-catchers of valid cues to deception. Expand
Individual Differences and Cues to Deception
In an extension of previous studies on deception and deception detection, the present research investigated the relations among individual differences, behavioral cues displayed when deceiving andExpand
Repeated interrogations: verbal and non‐verbal cues to deception
The major aim of this study was to investigate to what extent verbal and non-verbal features of liars' and truth-tellers' behaviour change during the course of repeated interrogations. After seeing aExpand
Believed cues to deception: Judgments in self‐generated trivial and serious situations
Purpose. To investigate the beliefs that people hold about the cues to deception in serious and trivial lies.Method. A questionnaire study considered the beliefs which people have about the cues toExpand
The Detection of Deception in Forensic Contexts: Practitioners' beliefs about deception
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of research on beliefs about deception – especially practitioners' beliefs. Specifically, we will outline which beliefs on deception professionalsExpand
Moderators of nonverbal indicators of deception: A meta-analytic synthesis.
In many legal proceedings, fact finders scrutinize the demeanor of a defendant or witness, particularly his or her nonverbal behavior, for indicators of deception. This meta-analysis investigatedExpand
Insight into behavior displayed during deception
Previous research suggests that liars are not aware that they tend to decrease their movements during deception. Moreover, it is unclear how liars will behave if someone informs them about theirExpand