Wind interneurone input to flight motor neurones in the locust, Schistocerca gregaria

Abstract

Thailand [2], India [3], Pakistan [4], Iran [5], Turkey [6], Lebanon [7], Egypt [8] and Tunesia [9], whereas in some African and South American countries childhood urolithiasis is quite rare. F rom a chemical and crystallographical point of view it must be supposed that crystallization of ammonium acid urate in the human urinary tract is etiologically connected with the problem of endemic childhood urolithiasis, since this urate is often found in the nucleus of the concretions. In the last two years, 170 urinary calculi have been analyzed by routine crystallographic methods including phase determination by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy using polarized light. The calculi were surgically removed, in the Urological Clinic Essen, from patients living and working in the Ruhrgebiet, which is a highly industrialized area of West Germany. In 15 samples of the analyzed calculi, ammonium acid urate was determined as a major component. These calculi can be classified into three types [10]: Type I: In 13 calculi, ammonium acid urate is associated with calcium oxalates (weddellite; CaCzO4-2H20 and whewellite; CaCzO4.1H20) and small amounts of carbonate-containing calcium phosphate, usually determined as carbonate apatite. Ammonium acid urate is generally observed in the interior and often in the nucleus of these concretions. In some cases t he nuclei of the urinary calculi had dissolved in vivo, so that the center was hollow. Type II : In one case, ammonium acid urate was found in a typical infection stone composed of struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H20) and nonstoiehiometric carbonate apatite [Calo ~Hx(PO4,3/2CO3)6(OH,1/2CO3)2 x aq]. Type III: In another single instance, ammonium acid urate was detected as a coating, together with carbonate apatite, on a uric acid stone. All 13 concretions of the type I are from male as well as female children of Turkish workers in the Ruhrgebiet. Some of these were born in Germany, and some had immigrated from Turkey. The calculi of types II and III are from German adults. Clinical examinations as well as chemical analysis of urine and blood of Turkish children with ur01ithiasis reveal no differences from German children [11]. The urinary calculi Fig. 1. Scanning electron micrograph showing pin-cushion-like spherulites (ammonium acid urate) on a cleavage of a urinary calculus

DOI: 10.1007/BF00373511

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Cite this paper

@article{Bacon2004WindII, title={Wind interneurone input to flight motor neurones in the locust, Schistocerca gregaria}, author={Jeff Bacon and Mark Tyrer}, journal={Naturwissenschaften}, year={2004}, volume={66}, pages={116-117} }