Will xenon be a stranger or a friend?: the cost, benefit, and future of xenon anesthesia.

  title={Will xenon be a stranger or a friend?: the cost, benefit, and future of xenon anesthesia.},
  author={Takahisa Goto and Yoshinori Nakata and Shigeho Morita},
  volume={98 1},
Xenon is both an old and a new anesthetic. Although its anesthetic properties have been known for more than 50 yr, it was largely forgotten until 1990, mainly because of its high cost. Aside from this problem, xenon possesses many of the characteristics of an ideal anesthetic. For example, its blood–gas partition coefficient is extremely small (0.115), yielding rapid emergence from anesthesia regardless of the duration of anesthesia. It lacks teratogenicity, and it produces analgesia, thereby… 

Molecular Mechanisms Transducing the Anesthetic, Analgesic, and Organ-protective Actions of Xenon

Clinical trials to assess the impact of xenon in settings with a high probability of injury such as cardiopulmonary bypass and neonatal asphyxia should be designed and underpinned with investigation of the molecular targets that transduce these effects.

[How xenon works: neuro and cardioprotection mechanisms].

The usefulness of xenon in Anesthesiology requires more studies to be defined, and it seems unlikely that the advantages it offers in relation to other anesthetics justify it's use in patients ASA I-II.

Comparison of xenon‐based anaesthesia compared with total intravenous anaesthesia in high risk surgical patients *

Although xenon has previously been shown to exert superior haemodynamic stability, it was unable to demonstrate an advantage of xenon‐based anaesthesia compared to TIVA in high risk surgical patients.

Xenon preconditioning: molecular mechanisms and biological effects

The neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects of xenon preconditioning have been investigated in a lot of studies and some mechanisms related to these protections are proposed.

Inert gases as the future inhalational anaesthetics?

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This review will focus primarily on the cytotoxic effects of anesthetics, and offer some practical resolutions that may attenuate their long-term harm.

The uses of helium and xenon in current clinical practice

This review focuses on the history of the discovery of both gases, their unique physicochemical properties and describes their uses in clinical practice with particular emphasis on those applicable to anaesthesia.

The Effective Concentration 50 (EC50) for Propofol with 70% Xenon Versus 70% Nitrous Oxide

Xenon seems to be clinically more potent than nitrous oxide, but still requires minimal supplement of a hypnotic anesthetic to suppress noxious stimulation during and after skin incision.

General Anesthetic Gases and the Global Environment

  • Y. Ishizawa
  • Environmental Science
    Anesthesia and analgesia
  • 2011
The primary goal of this article is to critically review the current data on the potential effects of general anesthetics on the global environment and to describe possible alternatives and new technologies that may prevent these gases from being discharged into the atmosphere.

The Effects of Xenon on Myogenic Motor Evoked Potentials in Rabbits: A Comparison with Propofol and Isoflurane

The results suggest that MEP recording may be feasible under xenon anesthesia if multipulse stimulation is used, although xenon has suppressive effects on myogenic MEPs.



Effects of the Anesthetic Gases Xenon, Halothane, and Isoflurane on Calcium and Potassium Currents in Human Atrial Cardiomyocytes

Halothane and isoflurane exhibited considerable inhibitory effects on voltage-gated cardiac Ca2+ and K+ currents important for the duration of action potentials and the repolarization.

Xenon Does Not Alter Cardiac Function or Major Cation Currents in Isolated Guinea Pig Hearts or Myocytes

Unlike hydrocarbon-based gaseous anesthetics, Xe does not significantly alter any measured electrical, mechanical, or metabolic factors, or the nitric oxide–dependent flow response in isolated hearts, at least partly because Xedoes not alter the major cation currents as shown here for cardiac myocytes.

Multicenter Randomized Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Xenon and Isoflurane in Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery

This first randomized controlled multicenter trial on the use of xenon as an inhalational anesthetic confirms that xenon in oxygen provides effective and safe anesthesia, with the advantage of a more rapid recovery when compared with anesthesia using isoflurane–nitrous oxide.

Minimum Alveolar Concentration–Awake of Xenon Alone and in Combination with Isoflurane or Sevoflurane

The MAC-awake of xenon is 33% or 0.46 times its MAC, a traditional index of hypnotic potency of an inhalational anesthetic that is smaller than that for N2O but greater than those for isoflurane and sevoflureane.

Emergence times from xenon anaesthesia are independent of the duration of anaesthesia.

It is concluded that xenon provided fast emergence from anaesthesia, regardless of the duration of anaesthesia.

Cardiovascular Effects of Xenon in Isoflurane‐anesthetized Dogs with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

It is indicated that xenon produces minimal cardiovascular actions in the presence of isoflurane in dogs with and without experimental dilated cardiomyopathy.

Xenon Provides Faster Emergence from Anesthesia than Does Nitrous Oxide‐sevoflurane or Nitrous Oxide‐isoflurane

Emergence from xenon anesthesia is two or three times faster than that from equal‐MAC N2 O + isoflurane or N2O + sevoflURane anesthesia.

Effects on haemodynamics and catecholamine release of xenon anaesthesia compared with total i.v. anaesthesia in the pig.

Examination of haemodynamic response and catecholamine release during anaesthesia with xenon found that xenon anaesthesia was associated with a high degree of cardiovascular stability and adrenaline concentrations were reduced significantly in all groups.