Wildlife dynamics in the changing New England landscape

@article{Foster2002WildlifeDI,
  title={Wildlife dynamics in the changing New England landscape},
  author={David R. Foster and Glenn Motzkin and D. Bernardos and James E. Cardoza},
  journal={Journal of Biogeography},
  year={2002},
  volume={29}
}
Abstract Aim  Over the past four centuries the eastern US has undergone remarkable landscape and land‐use transformations involving deforestation, intensive agriculture, farm abandonment, reforestation and human population increase that have induced sweeping changes in wildlife assemblages, abundances, and distributions. This study compiles data on major wildlife species and seeks to identify broad population trends and to address both fundamental and applied questions regarding these long‐term… 

Figures from this paper

Conservation issues and approaches for dynamic cultural landscapes
Although the details of New England’s history and current landscape conditions are unique, studies of the region underscore ecological themes that are common to many landscapes and ecosystems
Oak, chestnut and fire: climatic and cultural controls of long‐term forest dynamics in New England, USA
Aim  Despite decades of study we have limited insights into the nature of the pre‐European landscape of the north‐eastern USA and the forces and changes that shaped modern forest patterns.
Conservation implications of limited Native American impacts in pre-contact New England
An increasingly accepted paradigm in conservation attributes valued modern ecological conditions to past human activities. Disturbances, including prescribed fire, are therefore used by land managers
Once There Were So Many: Animals as Ecological Baselines
TLDR
This paper argues that combining approaches from environmental history and recent ecological research will allow for the interrogation of original sources and the application of scientific concepts that questions the assumptions underlying historical baselines.
Thoreau's country: a historical–ecological perspective on conservation in the New England landscape
TLDR
This paper argues that Thoreau's words and approach to conservation to conservation should be taken to heart and admonishes that the authors appreciate the historical processes driving long-term ecological changes as they attempt to conserve and restore the vegetation, wildlife and landscape of regions including New England.
Models to distinguish effects of landscape patterns and human population pressures associated with species loss in Canadian national parks
It is widely accepted that large protected areas are required to effectively conserve historical species composition. However, recent analyses of mammal species loss in Canadian and African national
Ghost of land-use past in the context of current land cover: evidence from salamander communities in streams of Blue Ridge and Piedmont ecoregions
TLDR
The negative impacts of historical land uses, particularly row-crop agriculture, on stream salamander diversity and community structure rendering streams unsuitable for all but the most tolerant species are indicated.
Aquatic Conservation Planning at a Landscape Scale
Inland surface waters provide vital ecosystem services and support a diverse and important biota. An overriding feature of freshwater ecosystems is ­connectedness, which has been compromised by a
Past Imperfect: Using Historical Ecology and Baseline Data for Conservation and Restoration Projects in North America
Conservation and restoration programs usually involve nostalgic claims about the past, along with calls to return to that past or recapture some aspect of it. Knowledge of history is essential for
Conservation Planning with Large Carnivores and Ungulates in Eastern North America: Learning from the Past to Plan for the Future
  • J. Ray
  • Environmental Science
  • 2010
While large mammals are often important targets of conservation ­activities in their own right, they can serve as effective tools for designing ­conservation landscapes and management measures at the
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 166 REFERENCES
Physiographical and historical effects on forest vegetation in central New England, USA
Aim  Land‐use history can be an important determinant of ecosystem characteristics, even in landscapes that outwardly appear ‘natural’. In New England, like much of the eastern United States, the
Three hundred years of forest and land‐use change in Massachusetts, USA
Abstract Aim  The aim of this study was to document changes in forest composition, structure and distribution across Massachusetts, USA, from the time of European settlement (seventeenth century) to
Grasslands, heathlands and shrublands in coastal New England: historical interpretations and approaches to conservation
Abstract Aim  This study evaluates the long‐term history of grassland, heathland and shrubland communities that are high priorities for conservation in the north‐eastern US and support numerous
Legacies of the agricultural past in the forested present: an assessment of historical land‐use effects on rich mesic forests
Abstract Aim and location  The research investigated the long‐term effects of human disturbance, namely nineteenth century agricultural land‐use, on the modern species composition, structure and
Oak, chestnut and fire: climatic and cultural controls of long‐term forest dynamics in New England, USA
Aim  Despite decades of study we have limited insights into the nature of the pre‐European landscape of the north‐eastern USA and the forces and changes that shaped modern forest patterns.
Cultural, environmental and historical controls of vegetation patterns and the modern conservation setting on the island of Martha's Vineyard, USA
Aim  Long‐term studies of landscape dynamics in relationship to changes in cultural, environmental and disturbance factors have great potential for increasing the understanding of modern ecological
Fire on the New England landscape: regional and temporal variation, cultural and environmental controls
Aim  We use a retrospective approach to reconstruct the past distribution of fire in New England and to investigate the important drivers of this pattern across the period of European arrival to
Vegetation variation across Cape Cod, Massachusetts: environmental and historical determinants
Abstract Aim  We evaluate environmental and historical determinants of modern species composition for upland vegetation types across Cape Cod, Massachusetts, a region that supports numerous uncommon
New England wildlife: management forested habitats
Presents silvicultural treatments for six major cover-type groups in New England to produce stand conditions that provide habitat opportunities for a wide range of wildlife species. Includes matrices
The importance of disturbance and land-use history in New England: implications for forested landscapes and wildlife conservation
Forested landscapes are dynamic — they are always in transition and have always been in a state of constant change. Though the rates and agents of change vary temporally and spatially, change
...
...