Widespread rapid reductions in body size of adult salamanders in response to climate change

@article{Caruso2014WidespreadRR,
  title={Widespread rapid reductions in body size of adult salamanders in response to climate change},
  author={Nicholas M. Caruso and Michael W Sears and Dean C. Adams and Karen R. Lips},
  journal={Global Change Biology},
  year={2014},
  volume={20}
}
Reduction in body size is a major response to climate change, yet evidence in globally imperiled amphibians is lacking. Shifts in average population body size could indicate either plasticity in the growth response to changing climates through changes in allocation and energetics, or through selection for decreased size where energy is limiting. We compared historic and contemporary size measurements in 15 Plethodon species from 102 populations (9450 individuals) and found that six species… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Increasing body size and fecundity in a salamander over four decades, possibly due to global warming

TLDR
It is concluded that the lentic breeding salamander, Hynobius tokyoensis, has gone through significant increases in body size and clutch size over the last four decades and the magnitude of the response to climate change depends on the geography of the population.

Climate change and shrinking salamanders: alternative mechanisms for changes in plethodontid salamander body size

TLDR
It is found that mean adult body size of salamanders can be highly sensitive to survey conditions, particularly rainfall, and considerable variability in body size distributions among years is identified.

Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

TLDR
This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature.

Demographic consequences of changing body size in a terrestrial salamander

TLDR
A strong dependency of the population growth rate on changes in individual size is found, mediated by potential changes in selection on mean body size and on maximum body size.

Environmental drivers of body size in North American bats

TLDR
Bayesian hierarchical models revealed that spatial variation in body mass was most strongly (and negatively) correlated with mean annual temperature, supporting the heat conservation hypothesis (historically believed to underlie Bergmann’s Rule) and climate change could influence body size in animals through both changes inmean annual temperature and in resource availability.

Reduced body sizes in climate-impacted Borneo moth assemblages are primarily explained by range shifts

TLDR
It is shown that body size reduction in moth assemblages on Mt. Kinabalu, Borneo, over 42 years are driven more by species range shifts than by within-species shrinkage, and the effects of range shifting predominate.

Neotropical Migrants Exhibit Variable Body-Size Changes Over Time and Space

TLDR
Body size changes varied across species, but wing length and fat-free mass increased significantly over time in the pooled sample of all species, demonstrating that morphological changes can vary regionally.

Life history variation along an elevational gradient in Plethodon montanus: implications for conservation

TLDR
The life history variation of Plethodon montanus is described using capture-recapture data over a period of four years, at five sites along an elevational gradient and how vital rates vary with body size, elevation, sex, and season is determined.

Heterogeneous changes in avian body size across and within species

TLDR
It is demonstrated that populations of the same species can exhibit opposing changes in body size over short geographic distances (<250 km) and can vary across and within species over short distances.

Amphibian responses in the aftermath of extreme climate events

TLDR
The ecological consequences of climate change have already occurred across the warmer, drier regions of Southern California, and the results suggest that predicted climate vulnerable regions in the more mesic northern range likely will not provide climate refuge for numerous amphibian communities.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 62 REFERENCES

Declining body size: a third universal response to warming?

Climate warming and ectotherm body size – from individual physiology to community ecology

TLDR
This review discusses the underlying physiological mechanisms of changes in ectotherm body size and addresses observed responses within a broad ecological context at different levels of organization, from individuals to communities, particularly in aquatic systems.

Evolution of the Earliest Horses Driven by Climate Change in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

TLDR
Examination of a high-resolution 175,000-year record of equid fossils deposited over a past climate shift for changes in body size indicates that temperature directly influenced body size in the past and may continue to have an influence as the authors' current climate changes.

Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship

TLDR
Climate warming can act on wild temperate zone amphibians by deleteriously affecting their physiology, during and after hibernation, causing increased female mortality rates and decreased fecundity in survivors.

Effects of Warming Conditions in Eastern North American Forests on Red‐Backed Salamander Morphology

  • J. GibbsN. Karraker
  • Environmental Science
    Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
  • 2006
TLDR
The combined forces of regional climate warming and, particularly, forest disturbance have evidently been sufficient to cause morphological evolution in this amphibian over the last century.

The evolution of large‐scale body size clines in Plethodon salamanders: evidence of heat‐balance or species‐specific artifact?

TLDR
It is demonstrated that the heat-balance hypothesis is unlikely to have generated this pattern, and that there is no overall body size trend with temperature in Plethodon, and the results emphasize the importance of using corroborative data to evaluate alternative hypotheses, so that potential mechanisms that explain bioegeographic patterns are properly assigned.

Temperature, Growth Rate, and Body Size in Ectotherms: Fitting Pieces of a Life-History Puzzle1

TLDR
A multivariate theory that focuses on the coevolution of thermal reaction norms for growth rate and size at maturity is recommended, which should incorporate functional constraints on thermal Reaction norms, as well as the natural covariation between temperature and other environmental variables.

Climate change correlates with rapid delays and advancements in reproductive timing in an amphibian community

TLDR
It is shown for the first time that two autumn-breeding amphibians are breeding increasingly later in recent years, coincident with an estimated 1.2°C increase in local overnight air temperatures during the September through February pre-breeding and breeding periods.

Shrinking body size as an ecological response to climate change

TLDR
This Perspective looks at the evidence for shrinking body size across endothermic and ectothermic organisms and proposes future research directions.

Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems

TLDR
This study provides evidence that reduced body size is the third universal ecological response to global warming in aquatic systems besides the shift of species ranges toward higher altitudes and latitudes and the seasonal shifts in life cycle events.
...