Metagratings: Beyond the Limits of Graded Metasurfaces for Wave Front Control.
Blazed gratings can reflect an oblique incident wave back in the path of incidence, unlike mirrors and metal plates that only reflect specular waves. Perfect blazing (and zero specular scattering) is a type of Wood's anomaly that has been observed when a resonance condition occurs in the unit-cell of the blazed grating. Such elusive anomalies have been studied thus far as individual perfect blazing points. In this work, we present reflective blazed surfaces that, by design, have multiple coupled blazing resonances per cell. This enables an unprecedented way of tailoring the blazing operation, for widening and/or controlling of blazing bandwidth and incident angle range of operation. The surface can thus achieve blazing at multiple wavelengths, each corresponding to different incident wavenumbers. The multiple blazing resonances are combined similar to the case of coupled resonator filters, forming a blazing passband between the incident wave and the first grating order. Blazed gratings with single and multi-pole blazing passbands are fabricated and measured showing increase in the bandwidth of blazing/specular-reflection-rejection, demonstrated here at X-band for convenience. If translated to appropriate frequencies, such technique can impact various applications such as Littrow cavities and lasers, spectroscopy, radar, and frequency scanned antenna reflectors.