Why the Crime Drop?

  title={Why the Crime Drop?},
  author={Graham Farrell and Nick Tilley and Andromachi Tseloni},
  journal={Crime and Justice},
  pages={421 - 490}
The “crime drop” is the most important criminological phenomenon of modern times. In North America, Europe, and Australasia, many common crimes have fallen by half or more since the early 1990s, albeit with variation in the specifics. Seventeen explanations are examined here including demographics, policing, imprisonment, drug markets, and lead poisoning. Pioneering research relevant only to the United States now appears, with the benefit of hindsight, somewhat parochial. Sixteen of the 17… 

The “Great American Crime Decline”: Possible Explanations

This chapter examines the key features of the crime decline in the United States during the 1990s–2010s but also takes a broader look at the violence declines globally. The author argues that violent

The East Asian crime drop?

It is shown that Japan and Taiwan experienced crime drops similar to that reported elsewhere but occurring more recently in the early 2000s, and Hong Kong appears anomalous, with a major crime decline emerging from the early 1980s.

Crime, the Criminal Justice System, and Socioeconomic Inequality

Crime rates in the United States have declined to historical lows since the early 1990s. Prison and jail incarceration rates as well as community correctional populations have increased greatly since

Attempted Crime and the Crime Drop

This study contributes to crime drop research on the security hypothesis. Using data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales, it finds that the decline in attempted vehicle-related theft and

Development and Crime Drop: A Time-Series Analysis of Crime Rates in Hong Kong in the Last Three Decades

  • Xi ChenHua Zhong
  • Law, Psychology
    International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology
  • 2020
Analysis of different types of offenses in Hong Kong between 1976 and 2017 reveals that the strengths of different social institutions are negatively associated with crime rates, showing strong support to institutional anomie theory and routine activities theory.

Juvenile crime drop: What is happening with youth in Spain and why?

One of the most robust findings in criminology is the fall in crime rates throughout the Western world. However, there is still much to be learnt about this and its causes. This case study analyses

Violence and the crime drop

According to the Crime Survey for England and Wales, violence fell dramatically between 1995 and 2013/14. To improve understanding of the fall in violent crime, this study examines long-term crime

Rethinking one of criminology’s ‘brute facts’: The age–crime curve and the crime drop in Scotland

This paper explores how the age distribution of convicted offending changed for men and women in Scotland between 1989 and 2011 and employs shaded contour plots as a method of visualizing annual change in the age–crime curve.

Is Violent Crime Increasing or Decreasing? a New Methodology to Measure Repeat Attacks Making Visible the Significance of Gender and Domestic Relations

The fall in the rate of violent crime has stopped. This is a finding of an investigation using the Crime Survey for England and Wales, 1994–2014, and an improved methodology to include the

Bringing Crime Trends Back into Criminology: A Critical Assessment of the Literature and a Blueprint for Future Inquiry

Rates of street crime have dropped substantially over the past several decades, but important nuances of this decline are underappreciated and the reasons for it remain unclear. We suggest that the



Explaining and sustaining the crime drop: Clarifying the role of opportunity-related theories

Western industrialised countries experienced major reductions in crime for a decade from the early to mid-1990s. The absence of adequate explanation identifies a failing of criminological theory and

Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not

Crime fell sharply in the United States in the 1990s, in all categories of crime and all parts of the nation. Homicide rates plunged 43 percent from the peak in 1991 to 2001, reaching the lowest

Have Changes in Policing Reduced Violent Crime? An Assessment of the Evidence

The police do not prevent crime. This is one of the best kept secrets of modern life. Experts know it, the police know it, but the public does not know it. Yet the police pretend that they are

Social Institutions and the Crime "Bust" of the 1990s

The period from 1990 to 1997 represents the closest thing to a sustained decline in crime, or a "crime bust" that the United States has experienced in more than fifty years.

Distributive Justice and the Crime Drop

The present chapter seeks to link two of the central facts concerning victimization by crime in the Western world. The first is that the burden of crime is borne very unequally across areas and

The Crime Drop Discourse — or the Illusion of Uniform Continental Trends: Switzerland as a Contrasting Case

After the crime drop in the United States, it became almost a dogma that Europe would follow American trends with a delay of some years. This is nothing more than a generalization to crime of a

The crime drop in comparative perspective: the impact of the economy and imprisonment on American and European burglary rates.

A pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis of burglary rates in the USA and nine European nations between 1993 and 2006 indicates that burglary declines in the US and Europe were associated with rising consumer confidence and imprisonment appears to be significantly related to burglary rates only after unusual policy interventions.

Five tests for a theory of the crime drop

Many studies have sought to explain the major crime declines experienced in most advanced countries. Key hypotheses relate to: lead poisoning; abortion legalization; drug markets; demographics;

Security and the Drop in Car Theft in the United States

Since the early 1990s, all categories of crime have fallen in the United States. Previous research has provided various explanations for this downward trend in crime. These include, for example,

Crime Trends in Western Europe according to Official Statistics from 1990 to 2007

The so-called crime drop observed in the United States since the beginning of the 1990s led to an impressive number of publications in which different criminologists provide various and sometimes