Why sports concussions are worse for women.

@article{Sanderson2021WhySC,
  title={Why sports concussions are worse for women.},
  author={Katharine Sanderson},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2021},
  volume={596 7870},
  pages={
          26-28
        }
}
1 Citations

Concussion susceptibility is mediated by spreading depolarization-induced neurovascular dysfunction

TLDR
Evidence is provided that cortical spreading depolarization, blood–brain barrier dysfunction, and pro-inflammatory TGFβ signalling are associated with severe, potentially life-threatening outcomes following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.

References

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Association of Sex With Adolescent Soccer Concussion Incidence and Characteristics

TLDR
Findings suggest that concussion risk and outcome differences in adolescent soccer athletes might require sex-specific approaches to participation and concussion management in sport.

Sport-Related Concussion in Female Athletes: A Systematic Review

TLDR
It is demonstrated that female athletes may be more susceptible to concussion, have prolonged symptoms after a concussion, and are more likely to report a concussion than their male counterparts, however, underreporting still exists among female athletes.

Peripheral blood neuroendocrine hormones are associated with clinical indices of sport-related concussion

TLDR
Perturbations to the neuroendocrine system in athletes following SRC may contribute to initial symptom burden and longer recovery times.

Sex Differences in the Clinical Incidence of Concussions, Missed School Days, and Time Loss in High School Student-Athletes: Part 1

TLDR
High school female student-athletes have a higher risk for an SRC in all sex-comparable sports except lacrosse, and may be because of biomechanical differences of the head-neck segment, hormonal differences, and the fact that female athletes are more likely to report symptoms after a suspected SRC.

Menstrual Phase as Predictor of Outcome After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Women

TLDR
Menstrual cycle phase and progesterone concentration at the time of mTBI affect 1-month quality-of-life and neurologic outcomes, and this association has important implications for treatment and prognosis aftermTBI.

Association of Concussion With Abnormal Menstrual Patterns in Adolescent and Young Women

TLDR
The risk of 2 or more abnormal menstrual bleeding patterns after injury was significantly higher among patients with concussion than among those with an orthopedic injury, suggesting adolescent and young women may have increased risk of multiple abnormal menstrual patterns after concussion.

Are There Differences in Neurocognitive Function and Symptoms Between Male and Female Soccer Players After Concussions?

TLDR
In contrast to recent studies, after controlling for BMI, female athletes exhibited lower performance on visual memory composite scores and higher scores on total symptoms than male athletes after concussions.

The neuroprotective effects of progesterone on traumatic brain injury: current status and future prospects

TLDR
Increasing evidence that progesterone can act as a neuroprotective agent to treat traumatic brain injury is reviewed and the mechanisms underlying these effects are discussed.