Why run and hide when you can divide? Evidence for larval cloning and reduced larval size as an adaptive inducible defense

@article{Vaughn2010WhyRA,
  title={Why run and hide when you can divide? Evidence for larval cloning and reduced larval size as an adaptive inducible defense},
  author={Dawn Vaughn},
  journal={Marine Biology},
  year={2010},
  volume={157},
  pages={1301-1312}
}
  • D. Vaughn
  • Published 4 March 2010
  • Biology
  • Marine Biology
Predator-induced cloning (asexual reproduction), with reduced size as consequence of cloning, suggests a novel adaptation to the threat of predation. Although cloning is a common reproductive strategy of many plants and animals, cloning in response to stimuli from predators has, at present, been documented only in the larvae (plutei) of the sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus. Other studies report larval cloning in echinoderms under optimal conditions of food and temperature. A burst of… 
Abrupt Change in Food Environment Induces Cloning in Plutei of Dendraster excentricus
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Results indicate that a change in food concentration can induce cloning in plutei, and demonstrate that anterior autotomization does occur in 4- to 6-arm pluteo.
Differential vulnerability to predation in two sympatric whelks is mediated by juvenile traits
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The results show that interspecific vulnerability to predators can be mitigated by larger sizes and thicker shells at hatching, and suggest that other species-specific factors, such as juvenile growth rate, may also play key roles in determining the vulnerability of hatchling and juvenile snails to shell-crushing predators.
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Testing the effects of a 50% reduction in egg volume on development time and juvenile size in three species of echinoid echinoderms found development time does not change linearly with egg size but instead increases exponentially as egg size is reduced.
The peril of the plankton.
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Manipulation of Developing Juvenile Structures in Purple Sea Urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) by Morpholino Injection into Late Stage Larvae
TLDR
Injection of Vivo-Morpholinos (vMOs) designed to knock down p58b and p16, two proteins involved in the elongation of S. purpuratus larval skeleton are injected into juvenile rudiments, providing first evidence that vMOs, which are designed to cross cell membranes, can be used to transiently manipulate gene function in later developmental stages in sea urchins.
Correction: Manipulation of Developing Juvenile Structures in Purple Sea Urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) by Morpholino Injection into Late Stage Larvae
TLDR
Injection of Vivo-Morpholinos (vMOs) designed to knock down p58b and p16, two proteins involved in the elongation of S. purpuratus larval skeleton are presented, providing the first evidence that vMOs, which are designed to cross cell membranes, can be used to transiently manipulate gene function in later developmental stages in sea urchins.
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