Why polls fail to predict elections

@article{Zhou2021WhyPF,
  title={Why polls fail to predict elections},
  author={Zhenkun Zhou and Matteo Serafino and Luciano Cohan and Guido Caldarelli and Hern{\'a}n A. Makse},
  journal={Journal of Big Data},
  year={2021},
  volume={8},
  pages={1-28}
}
In the past decade we have witnessed the failure of traditional polls in predicting presidential election outcomes across the world. To understand the reasons behind these failures we analyze the raw data of a trusted pollster which failed to predict, along with the rest of the pollsters, the surprising 2019 presidential election in Argentina. Analysis of the raw and re-weighted data from longitudinal surveys performed before and after the elections reveals clear biases related to mis… 
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