Why is the Only Good Orc a Dead Orc? The Dark Face of Racism Examined in Tolkien's World

@article{Rearick2004WhyIT,
  title={Why is the Only Good Orc a Dead Orc? The Dark Face of Racism Examined in Tolkien's World},
  author={Anderson Rearick},
  journal={MFS Modern Fiction Studies},
  year={2004},
  volume={50},
  pages={861 - 874}
}
Birmingham, Doug maintained, had produced two notable racist thinkers in the last few decades: Enoch Powell and J. R. R. Tolkien. Philip was outraged by this statement. Tolkien was unquestionably his favorite author and in what way, he wanted to know, could he be described as racist? Doug suggested he reread The Lord of the Rings. Philip assured him that he did, at six monthly intervals. In that case, Doug replied, surely he must have noticed that Tolkien's villainous Orcs were made to appear… 
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