Why is the Japanese Conviction Rate so High?

  title={Why is the Japanese Conviction Rate so High?},
  author={J. Mark Ramseyer and Eric Rasmusen},
  journal={The Journal of Legal Studies},
  pages={53 - 88}
Conviction rates in Japan exceed 99 percent. Because Japanese judges can be penalized by a personnel office if they rule in ways the office dislikes, perhaps they face biased incentives to convict. Using data on the careers and opinions of 321 Japanese judges, we find that judges who acquit do have worse careers following the acquittal. On closer examination, though, we find that the punished judges are not those who acquit on the ground that the prosecutors charged the wrong person. Rather… 
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