Why infest the loved ones – inherent human behaviour indicates former mutualism with head lice

  title={Why infest the loved ones – inherent human behaviour indicates former mutualism with head lice},
  author={Lajos R{\'o}zsa and P{\'e}ter Apari},
  pages={696 - 700}
SUMMARY Head lice transmit to new hosts when people lean their heads together. Humans frequently touch their heads to express friendship or love, while this behaviour is absent in apes. We hypothesize that this behaviour was adaptive because it enabled people to acquire head lice infestations as early as possible to provoke an immune response effective against both head lice and body lice throughout the subsequent periods of their life. This cross-immunity could provide some defence against the… 
Perpetuation of Borreliae.
The major global themes for the perpetuation of borreliae are identified, and local variations on those themes are summarized, focusing on key literature to outline the factors that serve as the basis for the distribution and abundance of bOrreliae.
Lousy mums: patterns of vertical transmission of an amphibious louse
In this study, we document patterns of vertical transmission of the amphibious louse Antarctophthirus microchir (Echinophthiriidae) in pups of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from
Infestation of Head Lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, in Primary School Children at Houn City, Libya
  • Medicine
  • 2019
It is concluded that pediculosis constitutes a public health problem among primary schoolchildren in Houn city and collaborative and participation efforts among physicians, teachers, and parents are necessary to maintain effective epidemiological surveillance and provide treatment.
In defence of the world’s most reviled invertebrate ‘bugs’
  • E. Small
  • Environmental Science
  • 2019
This paper shows that most invertebrate species highlighted have at least some compensating values, their harm has often been exaggerated and all have related species that are good citizens, and to improve invertebrates conservation it is advisable that efforts be made to educate the public regarding their importance.
Effect of households' social networks on lice infestation among vulnerable Mexican children: a qualitative comparative analysis.
Indicators of social networks made it possible to identify the role of households' social networks in the transmission of lice, and individual actions such as the use of shampoo containing insecticides are temporary and structural actions should be favored.
Mutualism (biology)
  • Biology
  • 2015
Symbiosis is a type of symbiosis in which two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Pediculosis Capitis
La pediculosis es una enfermedad parasitaria de distribución mundial que afecta la piel y cuero cabelludo. Los humanos pueden estar infestados por tres tipos de piojos: los de la cabeza Pediculus
Plagegeister auf der Kopfhaut
Juckreiz auf der Kopfhaut sowie ekzematöse Hautveränderungen im Nacken sind Symptome, die auf verschiedene Dermatosen hinweisen können. An einen Befall mit Kopfläusen wird aber oft nicht gedacht!
Nuclear genetic diversity of head lice sheds light on human dispersal around the world
The human louse, Pediculus humanus, is an obligate blood-sucking ectoparasite that has coevolved with humans for millennia. Because of the intimate relationship between this parasite and the human
Human pediculosis, a global public health problem
The biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and control of lice infestation in humans is summarized, and emerging evidence suggests that head lice and body lice should be considered conspecific, with different genotypes and ecotypes.


Selfish and spiteful behaviour through parasites and pathogens
By using parasites to harm non-kin hosts, the harming host may partially align its interests with those of the parasites, even when there is a fitness cost for this act.
Genotyping of Human Lice Suggests Multiple Emergences of Body Lice from Local Head Louse Populations
It is suggested that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity forHead louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice), to colonize clothing.
Body Lice as Tools for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Reemerging Diseases
Assessment of the occurrence and prevalence of the three agents described above in more than 600 body lice collected from infested individuals in the African countries of Congo, Zimbabwe, and Burundi, in France, in Russia, and in Peru confirmed the presence of R. prowazekii and Bartonella quintana in louse collected from all locations except the Congo.
What's in a name: the taxonomic status of human head and body lice.
Spite, xenophobia, and collaboration between hosts and parasites
It is aims to show that even simple descriptive information on host and parasite life-histories may be used to make rough estimations about transmission routes and selection pressures and to select social animals for an adaptive xenophobia in the context of an intraspecific arms race.
Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: the evolutionary history of anthropoid primate lice
The shared coevolutionary history of the anthropoid primates and their lice contains a mixture of evolutionary events including cospeciation, parasite duplication, parasite extinction, and host switching.
Yersinia pestis as a telluric, human ectoparasite-borne organism.
Immunogenic proteins in the body and faecal material of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, and their homology to antigens of other lice species
The aim of the present study was to identify the immunogenic proteins of the louseMidgut by immunoaffinity chromatography and to search for common proteins in louse midgut, louse faeces and in other louse species in order to isolate large quantities of Immunogenic proteins by an easier technique than dissection of midguts.
The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism
  • R. Trivers
  • Psychology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1971
A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the
Immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract of the human body louse Pediculus humanus humanus: the effect of induced resistance on the louse population
Resistance to human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus L, induced by feeding on rabbits immunized with an extract of louse gut was studied and showed a significant decrease in the number of eggs per female over time.