Why good thoughts block better ones: The mechanism of the pernicious Einstellung (set) effect

@article{Bilalic2008WhyGT,
  title={Why good thoughts block better ones: The mechanism of the pernicious Einstellung (set) effect},
  author={Merim Bilalic and Peter McLeod and Fernand R. Gobet},
  journal={Cognition},
  year={2008},
  volume={108},
  pages={652-661}
}

Figures and Tables from this paper

The Mechanism of the Einstellung (Set) Effect

The eye movements of expert players trying to solve a chess problem show that the first idea that comes to mind directs attention toward sources of information consistent with it and away from

Why do people fail to see simple solutions? Using think-aloud protocols to uncover the mechanism behind the Einstellung (mental set) effect

Abstract Einstellung (mental set) effects designate the phenomenon where established routines can prevent people from finding other, possibly more efficient solutions. Here we investigate the

The Einstellung effect in anagram problem solving: evidence from eye movements

TLDR
While participants were better able to encode and maintain the meaningful word stimuli in working memory, they found it more challenging to integrate the individual letters into the central letter string when it was presented as a word.

Einstellung Defused: Interactivity and Mental Set

TLDR
The results underscore the importance of designing problem-solving experiments that engineer distributed cognitive systems in which participants coordinate internal and external resources in thinking.

The Applied Cognitive Psychology of Attention: A Step Closer to Understanding Magic Tricks

Summary: Drawing on psychological science, magic provides a unique perspective on applied cognition. Only sparse systematic research, however, documents the thought processes associated with viewing

Looking for Creativity: Where Do We Look When We Look for New Ideas?

TLDR
Eye movement data appears to indicate a shift of attention from external to internal stimuli that benefits creativity and problem solving by reducing the cognitive load and enhancing attention to internally evolving activation.

The temporal dynamics of insight problem solving – restructuring might not always be sudden

TLDR
The results demonstrate that in a problem that requires restructuring of the initial mental representation, paying progressively more attention to the crucial elements of the problem often preceded the finding of the solution.

The Perils of Automaticity

Classical theories of skill acquisition propose that automatization (i.e., performance requires progressively less attention as experience is acquired) is a defining characteristic of expertise in a

It is magic! How impossible solutions prevent the discovery of obvious ones?

When confronted with an insight problem, some factors limit our capacity to discover the optimal solution. Previous research on problem solving has shown that the first idea that comes to
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 97 REFERENCES

Error in chess: The apperception-restructuring view

TLDR
It will be argued that chess players' errors can be only partially explained in terms of unspecified working-memory overload, because the working- memory loads caused by the solution paths are usually small, and it is necessary to consider apperceptive mechanisms also, as these control information intake.

Thoughts beyond words : When language overshadows insight

Four experiments examined whether verbalization can interfere with insight problem solving. In Experiment 1, Ss were interrupted during problem solving and asked either to verbalize their strategies

Testing two cognitive theories of insight.

  • Gary Jones
  • Psychology, Business
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2003
TLDR
The findings suggest that testable opposing predictions can be made to examine theory of insight and that the use of eye movement data is a fruitful method of both examining insight and testing theories of insight.

Expertise as mental set: The effects of domain knowledge in creative problem solving

  • J. Wiley
  • Psychology
    Memory & cognition
  • 1998
TLDR
A series of three experiments in which an adapted version of Mednick’s (1962) remote associates task was used demonstrates conditions under which domain knowledge may inhibit creative problem solving.

Multiple causes of difficulty in insight: the case of the nine-dot problem.

TLDR
This work argues that the quantitatively small effects of many studies arise because the difficulty of many insight problems is determined by multiple factors, so the removal of 1 factor has limited effect on the solution rate.

On the Failure to Eliminate Hypotheses in a Conceptual Task

TLDR
The results showed that those subjects, who reached two or more incorrect conclusions, were unable, or unwilling to test their hypotheses, and the implications are discussed in relation to scientific thinking.

An eye movement study of insight problem solving

TLDR
The present study suggests that eye movement recordings provide an important new window into processes of insight problem solving, providing converging evidence with prior findings using solution rates and solution times.

Premonitions of insight predict impending error.

Five experiments explored the dynamic metacognitions that accompany the problem- and anagramsolving processes. Subjects repeatedly rated how "warm" or close they were to solution. High feelings of

Immediate and sustained effects of planning in a problem-solving task.

In 4 experiments, instructions to plan a task (water jugs) that normally produces little planning altered how participants solved the problems and resulted in enhanced learning and memory. Experiment
...