Why every bipolar planetary nebula is `unique'

  title={Why every bipolar planetary nebula is `unique'},
  author={Noam Soker},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
  • N. Soker
  • Published 28 July 2001
  • Physics
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
We present the many evolutionary routes that progenitors of bipolar planetary nebulae (BPNe) can take. Overall, there are about a hundred qualitatively different evolutionary routes, hence about a hundred qualitatively different types of BPNe. Within each type there are quantitative differences as well. Adding the dependence of the appearance on inclination, we find that the number of different apparent structures of BPNe is about equal to, or even larger than, the number of known BPNe and… 

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