Why don’t you feel how I feel? Insight into the absence of empathy after severe Traumatic Brain Injury

  title={Why don’t you feel how I feel? Insight into the absence of empathy after severe Traumatic Brain Injury},
  author={Arielle de Sousa and Skye McDonald and Jacqueline Rushby and Sophie H. Li and Aneta Dimoska and Charlotte James},
Empathy for people with similar experiences: Can the perception-action model explain empathy impairments after traumatic brain injury?
The results suggest that intact cognitive functioning and physiological responses are not necessary for normal experiences of empathy after TBI, and that the PAM has relevance with respect to explaining self-reported empathy for the experiences of others, but cannot explain the role of physiological responses associated with empathy.
Subjective emotional experience and physiological responsivity to posed emotions in people with traumatic brain injury.
Normal subjective responses were found in the context of reduced psychophysiological responding to the posed expressions, suggesting that another mechanism can contribute to normal feedback effects after TBI.
Impaired emotional contagion following severe traumatic brain injury.
Preserved rapid conceptual processing of emotional expressions despite reduced neuropsychological performance following traumatic brain injury.
Reduced empathy in people with TBI may be explained by processes downstream of the initial rapid conceptual processing of emotional information, such as flexibly attending and responding to this information in a goal-directed manner in complex environments.
Using self-report measures such as the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to physical, neuropsychological, and emotional deficits that interfere with the individual’s capacity to return to his or her former lifestyle. This review
Relationships Between Alexithymia, Affect Recognition, and Empathy After Traumatic Brain Injury
Results suggest that people who have a tendency to avoid thinking about emotions are more likely to have problems recognizing others' emotions and assuming others' points of view.
Measuring Affective Processes In Traumatic Brain Injury
Self-reported measures were also associated with overall performance on measures of affective processing, and the effect of valence appears to be domain specific and research within one domain may not generalize to other cognitive-affective processes.
Spontaneous and posed emotional facial expressions following severe traumatic brain injury
Patients with TBI are impaired at expressing sad expressions either spontaneously or deliberately, which may reflect difficulties in the initiation or suppression of facial expression as well as an impaired semantic knowledge of the facial configuration of sad expression.


Loss of emotional experience after traumatic brain injury: findings with the startle probe procedure.
The authors used affective modulation of the eyeblink startle response to examine the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on emotional reactions to pictures. Participants were 13 individuals with
Two systems for empathy: a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions.
The hypothesis that emotional empathic abilities (involving the mirror neuron system) are distinct from those related to cognitive empathy and that the two depend on separate anatomical substrates is tested.
Emotional Empathy as Related to Mimicry Reactions at Different Levels of Information Processing
The hypotheses of this investigation were based on conceiving of facial mimicry reactions in face-to-face interactions as an early automatic component in the process of emotional empathy. Differences
Automatic mimicry reactions as related to differences in emotional empathy.
Differences between subjects high and low in emotional empathy appeared to be related to differences in automatic somatic reactions to facial stimuli rather than to Differences in their conscious interpretation of the emotional situation.
Recognition of emotion from facial expression following traumatic brain injury
People with TBI were found to be significantly impaired on expression labelling and matching, but experienced some improvement when provided with context, and negative emotions were particularly affected.
Characterization of Empathy Deficits following Prefrontal Brain Damage: The Role of the Right Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
The findings suggest that prefrontal structures play an important part in a network mediating the empathic response and specifically that the right ventromedial cortex has a unique role in integrating cognition and affect to produce the empathy response.
Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases.
The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature and can also predict a variety of empathy disorders.