Why does the sun's torsional oscillation begin before the sunspot cycle?

Abstract

Although the Sun's torsional oscillation is believed to be driven by the Lorentz force associated with the sunspot cycle, this oscillation begins 2-3 yr before the sunspot cycle. We provide a theoretical explanation of this with the help of a solar dynamo model having a meridional circulation penetrating slightly below the bottom of the convection zone… (More)

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