Why does separation distress hurt? Comment on MacDonald and Leary (2005).

@article{Panksepp2005WhyDS,
  title={Why does separation distress hurt? Comment on MacDonald and Leary (2005).},
  author={Jaak Panksepp},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  year={2005},
  volume={131 2},
  pages={224-30; author reply 237-40}
}
Evidence is substantial that separation-distress circuitry in animal models is related intimately to opioid-sensitive pain regulatory systems of the brain. The evidence that basic pain-affect mechanisms are integral to the feelings of defensive fear anxiety and aggression is modest. Although anger and anxiety can be reduced by opiates, the effects are not as robust and specific as those observed with the low doses that quell separation distress. The role of "social pain" may be larger for the… CONTINUE READING

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