Why do people need self-esteem? A theoretical and empirical review.


Terror management theory (TMT; J. Greenberg, T. Pyszczynski, & S. Solomon, 1986) posits that people are motivated to pursue positive self-evaluations because self-esteem provides a buffer against the omnipresent potential for anxiety engendered by the uniquely human awareness of mortality. Empirical evidence relevant to the theory is reviewed showing that high levels of self-esteem reduce anxiety and anxiety-related defensive behavior, reminders of one's mortality increase self-esteem striving and defense of self-esteem against threats in a variety of domains, high levels of self-esteem eliminate the effect of reminders of mortality on both self-esteem striving and the accessibility of death-related thoughts, and convincing people of the existence of an afterlife eliminates the effect of mortality salience on self-esteem striving. TMT is compared with other explanations for why people need self-esteem, and a critique of the most prominent of these, sociometer theory, is provided.

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@article{Pyszczynski2004WhyDP, title={Why do people need self-esteem? A theoretical and empirical review.}, author={Tom Pyszczynski and Jeff Greenberg and Sheldon Solomon and Jamie Arndt and Jeff Schimel}, journal={Psychological bulletin}, year={2004}, volume={130 3}, pages={435-68} }