Why do larvae of Utetheisa ornatrix penetrate and feed in pods of Crotalaria species? Larval performance vs. chemical and physical constraints

@article{Ferro2006WhyDL,
  title={Why do larvae of Utetheisa ornatrix penetrate and feed in pods of Crotalaria species? Larval performance vs. chemical and physical constraints},
  author={V. Ferro and Paulo Roberto Guimar{\~a}es and Jos{\'e} Roberto Trigo},
  journal={Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata},
  year={2006},
  volume={121}
}
Larvae of Utetheisa ornatrix (L.)(Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) are found mainly inside unripe pods of several alkaloid‐bearing Crotalaria (Fabaceae) species. Although eggs are laid on the leaves, the larvae are usually found feeding on unripe seeds in the pods. In this work, we investigated the selective pressures that could explain why U. ornatrix larvae feed primarily on unripe pods with seeds and not on leaves. Our results showed that larval survivorship in the laboratory was unaffected by… 

You are what you eat: native versus exotic Crotalaria species (Fabaceae) as host plants of the Ornate Bella Moth, Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae)

Crotalaria plants and Utetheisa ornatrix are closely linked to each other: the larvae destroy the seeds, while the moth depends on hostplants for alkaloids. To better understand the ongoing

Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae)

An artificial diet should be used for rearing this defoliator in the laboratory for biological research and the development of biological control tactics because of the toxicity of this prey to this predator.

Ants visiting extrafloral nectaries and pyrrolizidine alkaloids may shape how a specialist herbivore feeds on its host plants

It is hypothesized that the moths’ feeding habit was influenced by its natural enemies via their presence on EFNs, and a change in the feeding habit in U. ornatrix larvae is a plastic response that depends on whether EFNs are present or not, or whether PA concentrations are low or high.

Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore

The protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves, and the results are partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal which is reflected in the adult defense.

Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Negatively Affect a Generalist Herbivore Feeding on the Chemically Protected Legume Crotalaria pallida

The results suggest that PAs in isolation are not the defense responsible for the mortality in fresh C. pallida plants, indicating the importance of other possible defenses.

Are Aristolochic Acids Responsible for the Chemical Defence of Aposematic Larvae of Battus polydamas (L.) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)?

The results suggest that the mixture of AAs I and AAs II have no defensive role against predators, at least against those investigated in the present work.

Monocrotaline presence in the Crotalaria (Fabaceae) plant genus and its influence on arthropods in agroecosystems

This review summarizes information about the monocrotaline, showing such effects in these environments, both above and below ground, and their potential use in pest management programs.

Monocrotaline presence in the Crotalaria (Fabaceae) plant genus and its influence on arthropods in agroecosystems

This review summarizes information about the monocrotaline, showing such effects in these environments, both above and below ground, and their potential use in pest management programs.

Common-Garden Experiments Reveal Geographical Variation in the Interaction Among Crotalaria pallida (Leguminosae: Papilionideae), Utetheisa ornatrix L. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and Extrafloral Nectary Visiting Ants

Investigation of the interaction among Crotalaria pallida, its specialized herbivore, Utetheisa ornatrix L, and ants attracted to extrafloral nectaries found that most larvae moved away from the vicinity of the EFNs to the plant leaves, and there was a significant difference among populations in the frequency of larvae that moved to the leaves and the Frequency of larvae attacked by ants.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 40 REFERENCES

Unpalatability of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing moth, Utetheisa ornatrix, and its larva, to wolf spiders

Experiments demonstrating that Utetheisa, as larvae and adults, are protected against wolf spiders are reported.

Sequestration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by larvae ofTellervo zoilus (Lepidoptera: Ithomiinae) and their role in the chemical protection of adults against the spiderNephila maculata (Araneidae)

SummaryLife stages of the primitive Australian ithomiine butterflyTellervo zoilus and its larval hostplant, the apocynaceous vineParsonsia straminea, were quantitatively assayed for pyrrolizidine

Chemical defense against predation in an insect egg.

Each cluster in nature can be expected to range widely in palatability, so to check each cluster for acceptability must be adaptive for the larva, just as it must be adapted for Utetheisa to lay its eggs in large clusters and to apportion alkaloid evenly among eggs of a cluster.

Courtship pheromone production and body size as correlates of larval diet in males of the arctiid moth,Utetheisa ornatrix

Hydroxydanaidal, the corematal courtship pheromone of maleUtetheisa ornatrix, shows pronounced quantitative variation in natural populations of the moth, and could be used to gauge both the alkaloid content and body weight of their suitors.

Precopulatory sexual interaction in an arctiid moth (Utetheisa ornatrix): Role of a pheromone derived from dietary alkaloids

It is proposed that in addition to signalling male presence to the female, hydroxydanaidal may provide the means whereby the female assesses the alkaloid content of the male and therefore his degree of chemical protectedness.

Extrafloral nectaries as a deterrent mechanism against seed predators in the chemically protected weed Crotalaria pallida (Leguminosae)

The results indicate that extrafloral nectaries can act as another deterrent mechanism in chemically protected plants by promoting the expulsion of specialist seed predators.

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: different acquisition and use patterns in Apocynaceae and Solanaceae feeding ithomiine butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Bioassays with wild caught and freshly emerged adults suggest that protection against predation by the orb weaving spiderNephila clavipes may be dependent on PA concentration and maybe some spider idiosyncrasies, but freshly emerged Aeria olenawithout PAs are also liberated by Nephila, suggesting other protective compounds.

Do fecal shields provide physical protection to larvae of the tortoise beetles Plagiometriona flavescens and Stolas chalybea against natural enemies?

It is observed that larvae with their shields intact had a significant lower mortality proportion than larvae with artificial shields or without shields, which agrees with literature data, showing that fecal shields do not provide a physical protection to larvae but are important in their defense.

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid deters ant predators of Utetheisa ornatrix eggs: effects of alkaloid concentration, oxidation state, and prior exposure of ants to alkaloid-laden prey

The data provide the first demonstration of such long-term avoidance of chemically protected lepidopteran prey by an invertebrate, and has important ramifications to egg-laying strategies of female Utetheisa, both in terms of the dispersion of eggs, and the extent to which eggs are provisioned with alkaloid.

The chemistry of sexual selection.

  • T. EisnerJ. Meinwald
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1995
The moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids that it sequesters as a larva from its foodplants, and females reinforce after copulation the choice mechanism they already exercise during courtship.