Why do adult dogs ‘play’?

@article{Bradshaw2015WhyDA,
  title={Why do adult dogs ‘play’?},
  author={John W. S. Bradshaw and Anne J. Pullen and Nicola J Rooney},
  journal={Behavioural Processes},
  year={2015},
  volume={110},
  pages={82-87}
}
The influence of breed and environmental factors on social and solitary play in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
TLDR
The present study investigated whether the levels of solitary and social play differed between dogs of three breed types with distinct predatory motor pattern sequences and how environmental factors influenced play in dogs of these breed types.
Investigating the Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus occidentalis)
TLDR
It appears that play bows may function differently in wolf puppies in regards to re-initiating play, while some similarities for the function of play bows in dog and wolf puppies were documented.
Dog social behavior and communication
Introduction The success of the domestic dog as a species depends upon its ability to interact socially with members of its own species and, crucially, with humankind. Effective interaction depends
Normal feline behaviour: … and why problem behaviours develop
  • J. Bradshaw
  • Psychology
    Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • 2018
TLDR
This review identifies three areas in which basic research is inadequate to support widely employed concepts and practices in feline behavioural medicine, and identifies cats’ chemical senses, which are far more sensitive than the authors' own, making it difficult for owners or clinicians to fully comprehend the sensory information upon which they base their behaviour.
Evolution of Play
TLDR
This entry explores how ethologists have observed and defined play in a variety of animal species (including humans) and how play has been explained from an evolutionary perspective.
The drivers and functions of rock juggling in otters
TLDR
The results suggest that rock juggling may be a misdirected behaviour when hungry and may facilitate juveniles' motor development, but it appears unrelated to foraging skills.
The link between selection for function and human-directed play behaviour in dogs
TLDR
The results suggest that human-directed play behaviour played a role in the early domestication of dogs and that subsequent artificial selection for function has been important for contemporary variation in a behavioural phenotype mediating the social bond with humans.
Wolf (Canis lupus) Hybrids Highlight the Importance of Human-Directed Play Behavior During Domestication of Dogs (Canis familiaris)
TLDR
Although it is found that wolf hybrids were less playful and overall more fearful than dogs, the results suggest that behavioral alterations during domestication do not necessarily occur in concert and point to an important, but previously overlooked, role of selection on play behavior directed at humans during the domestication of dogs.
Dances with dogs: interspecies play and a case for sympoietic enactivism.
TLDR
It is shown that human-dog play is a quintessential case of cognition that cannot be readily understood by appealing to the inner workings of either individual among the dyad.
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References

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Do dogs respond to play signals given by humans?
TLDR
Specific actions used by humans do communicate a playful context to dogs and can be described as interspecific play signals.
Survivorship costs of play in the South American fur seal
Why Does Carnivore Play Matter ?
The Tanner, Smale, and Holekamp study is the first to document the ontogeny of play behavior in wild spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). In this Forum, we will discuss why such studies are important as
Cooperation and competition during dyadic play in domestic dogs, Canis familiaris
Dominance in domestic dogs: Useful construct or bad habit?
Social Learning in Dogs
Animal Play: Object play by adult animals
TLDR
Object play is a type of play behaviour familiar to pet cat and dog owners who regularly provide their pets with toys and appears, anthropomorphically, to be enjoyable.
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Actions called play signals have evolved in many species in which social play has been observed. Despite there being only few empirical demonstrations, it generally is accepted that play signals are
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