Why can't Johnny remember the basic facts?

@article{Baroody2009WhyCJ,
  title={Why can't Johnny remember the basic facts?},
  author={Arthur J. Baroody and Neet Priya Bajwa and Michael D. Eiland},
  journal={Developmental disabilities research reviews},
  year={2009},
  volume={15 1},
  pages={
          69-79
        }
}
Memorizing the basic number combinations, such as 9 + 7 = 16 and 16 - 9 = 7, is a punishing and insurmountable task for children with difficulties learning mathematics. Two perspectives on such learning lead to different conclusions about the primary source of this key learning difficulty. According to the conventional wisdom (the Passive Storage View), memorizing a basic fact is a simple form of learning-merely forming and strengthening an association between an expression and its answer. The… 
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