Why are there so many insect species? Perspectives from fossils and phylogenies

@article{Mayhew2007WhyAT,
  title={Why are there so many insect species? Perspectives from fossils and phylogenies},
  author={P. Mayhew},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={2007},
  volume={82}
}
  • P. Mayhew
  • Published 2007
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Biological Reviews
Over half of all described species are insects, but until recently our understanding of the reasons for this diversity was based on very little macroevolutionary evidence. [...] Key Result There is evidence that the species richness of insects has been enhanced by: (i) their relative age, giving time for diversification to take place; (ii) low extinction rates. There is little evidence that rates of origination have generally been high or that there are limits on numbers of species. However, the evidence on…Expand
Explaining global insect species richness: lessons from a decade of macroevolutionary entomology
TLDR
The last decade has shown that climate change and biogeographic processes are likely important in generating or limiting insect diversification, but there is a need for greater statistical rigour in such studies. Expand
Why are there not more herbivorous insect species?
Insect species richness is estimated to exceed three million species, of which roughly half is herbivorous. Despite the vast number of species and varied life histories, the proportion of herbivorousExpand
Fossil evidence for key innovations in the evolution of insect diversity
TLDR
Fossil hexapod data suggest that wings and complete metamorphosis have had the most effect on family-level insect macroevolution, and point to specific mechanisms by which they have influenced insect diversity through time. Expand
Fossil gaps inferred from phylogenies alter the apparent nature of diversification in dragonflies and their relatives
TLDR
P phylogenetic supertrees on one of the oldest clades of insects, the Odonatoidea, are assembled, supporting the notion that taxa, which appear to have diversified exponentially using fossil data, may in fact have diversify more logistically. Expand
Chapter Two - Evolution of Plant–Insect Interactions: Insights From Macroevolutionary Approaches in Plants and Herbivorous Insects
TLDR
Whether general trends in the evolution of plant–insect interactions have emerged from studies that have focused on inferring the diversification dynamics of herbivorous insects is attempted. Expand
Ancient origin of high taxonomic richness among insects
TLDR
It is shown that insect family-richness peaked 125 Ma and that Recent values are only 1.5–3 times as high as the Late Palaeozoic, which implies that major radiations within extant groups were offset by reduced richness within groups that are now relict or extinct. Expand
Evolutionary history of Coleoptera revealed by extensive sampling of genes and species
TLDR
A time-calibrated phylogeny for Coleoptera is infer based on 95 protein-coding genes in 373 beetle species and an association between the hyperdiversification of beetles and the rise of angiosperms is suggested. Expand
The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles
Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetleExpand
The origins of modern biodiversity on land
  • M. Benton
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2010
TLDR
A case is made here that this approach may be less successful at representing the shape of the evolution of life than the phylogenetic expansion approach, and new methods in phylogenetic analysis, morphometrics and the study of exceptional biotas allow new approaches. Expand
Recalibration of the insect evolutionary time scale using Monte San Giorgio fossils suggests survival of key lineages through the End-Permian Extinction
TLDR
It is found that major evolutionary innovations, including flight and metamorphosis, appeared considerably earlier than previously thought, and have numerous implications for understanding the evolution of insects and their resilience in the face of extreme events such as the End-Permian Extinction. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 210 REFERENCES
Insect Diversity and Cladistic Constraints
TLDR
The current decline in insect systematics is discussed, and it is concluded that resources must be allocated for primary components of the systematic entomology agenda: species inventories, monographic and revisional taxonomy, and cladistic analyses. Expand
"Inordinate Fondness" explained: why are there So many beetles?
  • Farrell
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Science
  • 1998
TLDR
Repeated origins of angiosperm-feeding beetle lineages are associated with enhanced rates of beetle diversification, indicating a series of adaptive radiations. Expand
TESTING HYPOTHESES ABOUT ECOLOGICAL SPECIALIZATION USING PHYLOGENETIC TREES
Abstract It is often assumed that ecological specialization represents an evolutionary “dead-end” that limits further evolution. Maximum-likelihood (ML) analyses on phylogenies for 15 groups ofExpand
Insect diversity: facts, fiction and speculation*
TLDR
Assessment of the faunal importance of the canopy in relation to that of other rain forest biotopes requires comparative quantitative studies, and the preliminary results of one such study suggest that over 42 million arthropods may be found in a hectare of Seram rain forest. Expand
Is there a characteristic rate of radiation for the insects
The hypothesis that there is a characteristic rate of exponential radiation for the Insecta is tested for forty-nine of the most diverse family-level taxa in the Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera.Expand
Insect diversity in the fossil record.
TLDR
Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. Expand
Are most species small? Not within species–level phylogenies
TLDR
It is found that there is little evidence for increased cladogenesis among small–bodied organisms within taxa, and no evidence for any consistent differences between taxa. Expand
Latitude and rates of diversification in birds and butterflies
  • M. Cardillo
  • Biology
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1999
TLDR
Evidence is found that relative rates of diversification per unit time are indeed higher towards the equator, and this pattern is explicable in terms of abiotic factors which vary continuously with latitude, and may be further enhanced by diversity–dependent speciation and extinction processes. Expand
TESTING FOR EQUAL RATES OF CLADOGENESIS IN DIVERSE TAXA
  • F. Bokma
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2003
TLDR
Application of this procedure to the distributions of bird, hexapod, primate, and angiosperm species over taxa provides statistical evidence of differences in rates of cladogenesis between taxa. Expand
Diversity of Anisoptera (Odonata): infering speciation processes from patterns of morphological diversity.
TLDR
Analysis of phylogenetic research and comparative approaches suggest sexual selection promotes speciation and an increase in body size is positively correlated with speciation rate within Anisoptera. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...