Why are there so many hospital beds in Germany?

  title={Why are there so many hospital beds in Germany?},
  author={Matthias Brunn and Torsten Kratz and Michael Padget and Marie-Caroline Cl{\'e}ment and Marc Smyrl},
  journal={Health services management research},
The place of hospitals in health systems is undergoing rapid change worldwide due to the high cost of hospital care and the changing health needs of the population. The Covid-19 pandemic has recently drawn public attention towards hospital capacity and has added new urgency to discussions on the future role of hospitals. In this context, recent experience in Germany provides valuable information for health systems seeking to manage hospital capacity. Despite reform efforts to reduce hospital… 



[Intensive care capacities in Germany: provision and usage between 1991 and 2009].

The provision and usage of intensive care capacities have increased steadily and independently of the hospital size in Germany in the last two decades.

[Intensive care medicine in old age : The individual status is the determining factor].

  • A. Valentin
  • Medicine
    Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
  • 2017
It is not justified to start or prolong intensive care in elderly patients without a reasonable possibility of a benefit, which is not soley defined in terms of survival.

The role of hospitals in bridging the care continuum: a systematic review of coordination of care and follow-up for adults with chronic conditions

The results show that hospitals can play an important role in transitional care interventions and the coordination of chronic care with better outcomes for the patients by taking a leading role in integrated care programs.

Health Care Spending in the United States and Other High-Income Countries

The United States spent approximately twice as much as other high-income countries on medical care, yet utilization rates in the United States were largely similar to those in other nations, and prices of labor and goods, including pharmaceuticals, and administrative costs appeared to be the major drivers of the difference in overall cost.

The Mount Sinai Hospital Institute for critical care medicine response to the COVID-19 pandemic

Flexible bed management initiatives; teamwork across multiple disciplines; and development and implementation of guidelines for airway management, cardiac arrest, anticoagulation, vascular access, and proning were critical in streamlining workflow and accommodating the surge in critically ill patients.

Age as a Criterion for Setting Priorities in Health Care? A Survey of the German Public View

There is little evidence that the German public accepts age as a criterion to prioritize health care services, but the results for age, a highly disputed criterion for prioritizing medical services, are disappointing.

Stress on the Ward: Evidence of Safety Tipping Points in Hospitals

It is argued that safety tipping points occur when managerial escalation policies are exhausted and workload variability buffers are depleted, and flexible capacity expansion is more cost-effective for safety improvement than rigid capacity, because it will only be used when occupancy reaches the tipping point.

Models and methods for determining the optimal number of beds in hospitals and regions: a systematic scoping review

There are no specific norms for the required number of beds at hospital and regional levels, but some of the identified models and methods may be used to estimate this number in different contexts and it is important to consider alternative approaches to planning hospital capacity like care pathways to fix the limitations of “bed numbers”.

Programmatic actors and the transformation of European health care States.

The resulting elite-driven model of policy change integrates ideational and institutionalist elements to explain programmatically coherent change despite institutional resistance and partisan instability.