Why are there no small species among xylem-sucking insects?

@article{Novotn2004WhyAT,
  title={Why are there no small species among xylem-sucking insects?},
  author={Vojtěch Novotn{\'y} and Michael R. Wilson},
  journal={Evolutionary Ecology},
  year={2004},
  volume={11},
  pages={419-437}
}
Xylem-sucking herbivores must cope with negative tension and extremely low nutrient concentration of xylem fluid. We test the hypothesis that the energetic cost of xylem fluid extraction grows with decreasing body size, as small species have relatively high metabolic rates and small feeding apparatus. The suction pressure gradient needed for feeding (P), calculated using Poiseuille's Law, and the cibarial pump load (L), estimated as xylem fluid volume per unit volume of cibarial muscles, were… Expand
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