Why all stimulant drugs are damaging to recreational users: an empirical overview and psychobiological explanation

@article{Parrott2015WhyAS,
  title={Why all stimulant drugs are damaging to recreational users: an empirical overview and psychobiological explanation},
  author={Andrew C. Parrott},
  journal={Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental},
  year={2015},
  volume={30},
  pages={213 - 224}
}
  • A. Parrott
  • Published 1 July 2015
  • Psychology
  • Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental
Stimulant drugs such as nicotine and Ecstasy/3, 4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are taken for positive reasons, yet their regular use leads to deficits rather than gains. This article outlines the psychobiological rationale for this paradox. 
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Developmental outcomes of 3,4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy)‐exposed infants in the UK
TLDR
Findings from a longitudinal study of prenatal methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) on infant development are reviewed.
Recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or ‘ecstasy’: Current perspective and future research prospects
TLDR
Current understandings about the psychobiological effects of recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ‘ecstasy’) are debated, and theoretically driven research topics are suggested, to recommend theoretically-driven topics for future research.
Oxytocin, cortisol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: neurohormonal aspects of recreational ‘ecstasy’
  • A. Parrott
  • Biology, Psychology
    Behavioural pharmacology
  • 2016
TLDR
It is concluded that the neurohormones oxytocin and cortisol contribute in various ways to the psychobiological effects of recreational ecstasy/MDMA.
Mephedrone and 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine: Comparative psychobiological effects as reported by recreational polydrug users
TLDR
The acute effects of MDMA and mePhedrone were broadly similar, however, the recovery period for mephedrone was more enduring, possibly due to the longer duration of acute session usage.
Role of nitric oxide pathway in the conditioned rewarding effects of MDMA in mice
Cocaine Versus Methamphetamine Users in the Emergency Department: How Do They Differ?
TLDR
Stimulant users presenting to an urban ED Level I trauma center over a 3-month period with toxicology screens positive for cocaine and/or methamphetamine were more likely to present with trauma, elope from the ED, and have alcohol intoxication.
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This paper aimed to review how scientific knowledge about the human psychobiology of MDMA has developed over time.
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TLDR
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