Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words

  title={Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words},
  author={J. Larkin and H. Simon},
  journal={Cognitive Science},
systems that are informationally equivalent and that can be characterized as sentential or diagrammatic. Sentential representations are sequential, like the propositions in a text. Dlogrammotlc representations ore indexed by location in a plane. Diogrommatic representations also typically display information that is only implicit in sententiol representations and that therefore has to be computed, sometimes at great cost, to make it explicit for use. We then contrast the computational… Expand
Why Diagrams Are (Sometimes) Six Times Easier than Words: Benefits beyond Locational Indexing
By building computational models, Larkin and Simon (1987) showed that the effects of locational indexing give an explanation of 'Why a diagam is (sometimes) worth ten thousand words', to quote theExpand
Peirce, logic diagrams, and the elementary operations of reasoning
This paper describes Peirce's systems of logic diagrams, focusing on the so-called ''existential'' graphs, which are equivalent to the first-order predicate calculus. It analyses their implicationsExpand
On the isomorphism, or lack of it, of representations
Representations are invariably described as being somehow similar in structure to that which they represent. On occasion representations have been written of as being “morphisms,” “homomorphisms,” orExpand
Augmenting Cognitive Architectures to Support Diagrammatic Imagination
The degree to which DRS, an earlier proposal for such an internal representation for diagrams, meets these requirements is discussed, and the use of DRS to augment Soar and ACT-R with a diagrammatic representation component is briefly reviewed. Expand
Diagrammatic knowledge representation
  • Tarun K. Sen
  • Computer Science
  • IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.
  • 1992
It is shown that if adjacency properties of a diagrams are captured using a suitable data structure, then the search effort required to reach a valid conclusion is reduced and the storage requirements of a diagrammatic representation are less than that of an equivalent sentential representation. Expand
Formal methods and human communication
This paper reviews experiences of applying this semantic approach to the empirical study of modality assignment in disparate domains (logic teaching, safety critical software engineering and the teaching of formality) and draws together some conclusions concerning the multifarious implications ofFormality for HCI. Expand
COGNITIVE SCIENCE: Definition, Status, and Questions
conceptual structures. Finer grain sizes are appropriate if the task to be modeled is an elementary one. Just & Carpenter's ( 1985) production model of the rotation of mental images is a good exampleExpand
Models and Formats of Representation
  • M. Vorms
  • Computer Science, Mathematics
  • 2007
It is concluded that there is no special semantics to be applied to I-models, and that the study of the representational power of models in general should instead focus on the variety of the formats that are used in scientific practice. Expand
The "Philosophical" Case Against Visual Images. A "Crucial" Experiment.
In their study of reasoning with diagrammatic and nondia~,rammatic representations, Larkin and Simon (1987) are concerned with external representations and explicitly avoid drawing inferences aboutExpand
Automatic Design of Efficient Visual Problem
An automated system called BOZ is described that begins with a logical problem representation and solution procedure, and generates an informationally-equivalent visual problem representations and procedure that allows the human user to obtain the solution more efficiently. Expand


Representational Types: A Tricode Proposal.
It is proposed that this principle is applied in a production system framework in which the relevant cognitive processes are those which interface declarative memory and production memory with working memory. Expand
Toward a Model of Text Comprehension and Production.
The semantic structure of texts can be described both at the local microlevel and at a more global macrolevel. A model for text comprehension based on this notion accounts for the formation of aExpand
Knowledge Compilation: Mechanisms for the Automatization of Cognitive Skills.
The development of a skill is traced from the point when it is initially being memorized and applied in a slow and halting fashion to the point where it has become fast and automatic through practice. Expand
What the Mind’s Eye Tells the Mind’s Brain: A Critique of Mental Imagery
This paper presents a critique of contemporary research which uses the notion of a mental image as a theoretical construct to describe one form of memory representation. It is argued that an adequateExpand
Information-processing analysis of perceptual processes in problem solving.
The theory is particularized in a computer program to simulate the eye movements of subjects choosing a move in chess, and its consistency is shown with data on memory of chess positions and with existing knowledge of short-term memory parameters. Expand
The mind's eye in chess.
Publisher Summary This chapter describes the progress made toward understanding chess skill. It describes the work on perception in chess, adding some new analyses of the data. It presents aExpand
Generalization Learning Techniques for Automating the Learning of Heuristics
Procedures are developed which permit a problem-solving program employing heuristics in production rule form to learn to improve its performance by evaluating and modifying existingHeuristics and hypothesizing new ones, either during an explicit training process or during normal program operation. Expand
Prescribing Effective Human Problem-Solving Processes: Problem Description in Physics. Working Paper ES-19.
The results show that the proposed model is sufficient to generate excellent problem descriptions, that these markedly improve subsequent problem solutions, and that major components of the model are necessary for good performance. Expand
Principles of Economics
BOOK I: PRELIMINARY SURVEY 1. Introduction 2. The Substance of Economics 3. Economic Generalizations or Laws 4. The Order and Aims of Economic Studies BOOK II: SOME FUNDAMENTAL NOTIONS 1.Expand