Why People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence

@article{Dunning2003WhyPF,
  title={Why People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence},
  author={David Dunning and Kerri L. Johnson and Joyce Ehrlinger and Justin Kruger},
  journal={Current Directions in Psychological Science},
  year={2003},
  volume={12},
  pages={83 - 87}
}
Successful negotiation of everyday life would seem to require people to possess insight about deficiencies in their intellectual and social skills. However, people tend to be blissfully unaware of their incompetence. This lack of awareness arises because poor performers are doubly cursed: Their lack of skill deprives them not only of the ability to produce correct responses, but also of the expertise necessary to surmise that they are not producing them. People base their perceptions of… 

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