Why Do Freezing Rocks Break?

@article{Hallet2006WhyDF,
  title={Why Do Freezing Rocks Break?},
  author={Bernard Hallet},
  journal={Science},
  year={2006},
  volume={314},
  pages={1092 - 1093}
}
  • B. Hallet
  • Published 17 November 2006
  • Geology
  • Science
Contrary to common perception, the breaking of rocks is usually not caused by the expansion of water upon freezing. 
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References

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We present a mathematical model for the breakdown of porous rock by the growth of ice within cracks. The model is founded upon well-established principles of fracture mechanics and recent advances inExpand
Bedrock Fracture by Ice Segregation in Cold Regions
TLDR
The volumetric expansion of freezing pore water is widely assumed to be a major cause of rock fracture in cold humid regions, but data from experiments simulating natural freezing regimes indicate that bedrock fracture results instead from ice segregation, supporting a conceptual model in which ice segregation in near-surface permafrost leads progressively to rock fracture and heave. Expand
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This review discusses the thermodynamics of crystallization within porous materials and the factors that influence stress development and cracking. The maximum driving force for crystallization isExpand
A photoelastic study of ice pressure in rock cracks
Abstract Water was frozen in a slot made in a transparent material, and the resulting stresses in the material produced by the expansion of the ice were measured by use of the photoelastic effect.Expand
Rock moisture content in the field and the laboratory and its relationship to mechanical weathering studies
Rock moisture content is a major control of mechanical weathering, particularly freeze-thaw, and yet almost no data exist from field situations. This study presents moisture content values for rocks,Expand
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The surface of ice exhibits the swath of phase-transition phenomena common to all materials and as such it acts as an ideal test bed of both theory and experiment. It is readily available,Expand