Why 1914 but Not Before? A Comparative Study of the July Crisis and Its Precursors

@article{Levy2021Why1B,
  title={Why 1914 but Not Before? A Comparative Study of the July Crisis and Its Precursors},
  author={Jack S. Levy and William Mulligan},
  journal={Security Studies},
  year={2021},
  volume={30},
  pages={213 - 244}
}
Abstract Why did the July 1914 crisis—but not crises in 1905, 1908–9, 1911, and 1912–13—escalate to great-power war despite occurring under similar international and domestic conditions? Explanations based on underlying and slowly changing structural, social, or cultural variables cannot answer this question. Examining three Balkan crises of 1912–13 and the July Crisis, we refine realist explanations based on power, alliances, and reputational interests by incorporating the impact of changing… 

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