Whose ‘Freedom of Navigation’? Australia, China, the United States and the making of order in the ‘Indo-Pacific’

  title={Whose ‘Freedom of Navigation’? Australia, China, the United States and the making of order in the ‘Indo-Pacific’},
  author={C. Wirth},
  journal={The Pacific Review},
  pages={475 - 504}
  • C. Wirth
  • Published 2019
  • Political Science
  • The Pacific Review
Abstract The so-called freedom of navigation through the Malacca straits and the South China Sea, some of the world’s busiest trade routes, has long been of concern to scholars and practitioners of international politics in the region. Increasing tensions around territorial disputes recently propelled the issue to the forefront of global foreign and security policy making. Yet, despite the frequent invocation of threats to the ‘freedom of navigation’ for the justification of military measures… Expand
The politics of strategic narratives of regional order in the Indo-Pacific: Free, open, prosperous, inclusive?
ABSTRACT This paper investigates India and Australia’s respective strategic narratives of regional order in the Indo-Pacific. Despite apparently significant convergences in their terminology aroundExpand
Putting the “geo” into geopolitics: a heuristic framework and the example of Australian foreign policy
This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of geopolitics by offering a heuristic framework to understand the “geo” in geopolitics. The approach integrates economic and strategic processesExpand
Broadening Horizons: "Indo-Pacific" Maritime Politics beyond China
China’s expanding presence in the South China Sea has prompted European governments to join the United States and its East Asian allies in their mission to secure the “liberal rules-based order”Expand
How to avoid a contest for supremacy in East Asia
Abstract This article challenges the increasingly dominant narrative of an inevitable quest for supremacy in contemporary East Asia. It argues that the narrative rests on a foundation of powerExpand
Norm contestation, statecraft and the South China Sea: defending maritime order
Since 2009, the South China Sea disputes have taken on increasing global significance. Situated within a rapidly transforming political landscape, these sovereignty and maritime disputes are totemi...
From Honeymoon to Hangover: Resetting Australia's Relations with China
Australia has recently adopted a more robust stance towards China, culminating in new legislation on espionage and foreign interference. In economic terms, Australia has greatly benefitted fromExpand


Rules, Balance, and Lifelines: An Australian Perspective on the South China Sea
A superficial reading of the South China Sea issue, informed by Beijing's propaganda line that the disputes amount simply to bilateral differences over principally Chinese maritime territory, wouldExpand
Archipelagic Sea-Lanes in Indonesia – Their legality in International Law
Abstract: This paper analyses the legal validity of three declared archipelagic sea lanes (ASL’s) established to enable maritime transit through Indonesia’s archipelago. It examines the process byExpand
The South China Sea: The Struggle for Power in Asia
China's rise has upset the global balance of power, and the first place to feel the strain is Beijing's backyard: the South China Sea. For decades tensions have smouldered in the region, but todayExpand
Economics and freedom of navigation in East Asia
ABSTRACT Public calls for a more aggressive regional response to China’s pressing of its territorial claims in the South China Sea are typically couched in terms of the threat posed to freedom ofExpand
In defence of the Indo-Pacific: Australia's new strategic map
The 2013 Australian Defence White Paper categorically termed Australia's zone of strategic interest the Indo-Pacific, the first time any government has defined its region this way. This raisesExpand
The ‘Indo-Pacific’ and geopolitical anxieties about China's rise in the Asian regional order
The Indo-Pacific seems to have come of age. In a growing body of literature on this subject, the rise of India and China, as well as the ensuing great-power competition and deepening economic linksExpand
Chokepoints: Maritime Economic Concerns in Southeast Asia
Abstract : To ensure unrestricted sea lines of communication (SLOCs) in Southeast Asia (SEA), the U.S. Navy is assigned the task of helping to maintain clear maritime passage through the sea lanes ofExpand
Legal Limitations on Ensuring Australia's Maritime Security
[In the wake of September 11, 2001, efforts to protect against future terrorist attacks have affected many areas of international law, including the law of the sea. Australia's interests in improvingExpand
In the Matter of the South China Sea Arbitration
The Award in the Matter of the South China Sea issued by an arbitral tribunal in July 2016 is a major contribution to the jurisprudence on the law of the sea, the rules of marine environmentalExpand
A Rite of Passage: The IMO Consideration of the Indonesian Archipelagic Sea-Lanes Submission
The introduction of a specialised passage regime for archipelagic sea-lanes was one of the most innovative features to the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention. Article 53(9) of the Convention requires anExpand