Wholeness as a hierarchical graph to capture the nature of space

  title={Wholeness as a hierarchical graph to capture the nature of space},
  author={Bin Jiang},
  journal={International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
  pages={1632 - 1648}
  • B. Jiang
  • Published 12 February 2015
  • Art
  • International Journal of Geographical Information Science
According to Christopher Alexander’s theory of centers, a whole comprises numerous, recursively defined centers for things or spaces surrounding us. Wholeness is a type of global structure or life-giving order emerging from the whole as a field of the centers. The wholeness is an essential part of any complex system and exists, to some degree or other, in spaces. This paper defines wholeness as a hierarchical graph, in which individual centers are represented as the nodes and their… 

A Complex-Network Perspective on Alexander’s Wholeness

Representing geographic space as a hierarchy of recursively defined subspaces for computing the degree of order

As Christopher Alexander discovered, all space or matter – either organic or inorganic – has some degree of order in it according to its structure and arrangement. The order refers to a kind of

A Topological Representation for Taking Cities as a Coherent Whole

  • B. Jiang
  • Computer Science
    The Mathematics of Urban Morphology
  • 2019
A geographic representation that views cities as a whole is developed, which fundamentally differs from existing geometry-based geographic representations and can be applied to any design or pattern, such as carpets, Baroque architecture and artifacts, and fractals in order to assess their beauty.

Geographic space as a living structure for predicting human activities using big data

It is found that tweet locations at different levels of scale, such as country and city, can be well predicted by the underlying living structure, and it is argued that the topological representation is a truly multiscale representation.

A Recursive Definition of Goodness of Space for Bridging the Concepts of Space and Place for Sustainability

Conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander through his life’s work, The Nature of Order, wholeness is defined as a mathematical structure of physical space in our surroundings. Yet, there was

Hierarchical Extraction of Skeleton Structures from Discrete Buildings

A stroke and centrality-based method to hierarchically extract the skeleton structures from buildings aiming to support generalization and demonstrates that the extracted hierarchical skeleton structures can represent the global shape of the entire region.

A Map Is a Living Structure with the Recurring Notion of Far More Smalls than Larges

This paper argues that both the map and the territory are a living structure, and that it is the inherent hierarchy of “far more smalls than larges” that constitutes the foundation of maps and mapping.

Alexander’s Theories Applied to Urban Design

The main conclusion is that centrality measures seem to offer an opportunity to get closer to Christopher Alexander’s concepts, but a key point to move forward is a deeper investigation on how to describe the urban elements, how to identify spatial differentiation, and how to visualize the results.

Structural Beauty: A Structure-Based Computational Approach to Quantifying the Beauty of an Image

This paper develops an approach for computing the structural beauty or life of an image based on the number of automatically derived substructures and their inherent hierarchy and discovered among others that Blue Poles is more structurally beautiful than the Mona Lisa, and traditional buildings are in general more structural beautiful than their modernist counterparts.

The mathematical structure of Alexander’s A Pattern Language: An analysis of the role of invariant patterns

In 1977 Christopher Alexander and his colleagues from the Centre for Environmental Structure published A Pattern Language, an innovative design guide aimed at restoring life and beauty to the built



Scaling of Geographic Space as a Universal Rule for Map Generalization

Map generalization is a process of producing maps at different levels of detail by retaining essential properties of the underlying geographic space. In this article, we explore how the map

A New Kind of Beauty Out of the Underlying Scaling of Geographic Space

Geographic space demonstrates scaling or hierarchy, implying that there are far more small things than large ones. The scaling pattern of geographic space, if visualized properly (i.e., based on the

Scaling of Geographic Space as a Universal Rule for Mapping or Cartographic Generalization

Mapping, or cartographic generalization in particular, is a process of producing maps at different levels of detail by retaining essential properties of the underlying geographic space. In this

Self-organized natural roads for predicting traffic flow: a sensitivity study

It was found that there exists a tipping point from segment-based to road-based network topology in terms of correlation between ranking metrics and their traffic and to the great surprise, this correlation is significantly improved if a selfish rather than utopian strategy is adopted in forming the self-organized natural roads.

The fractal nature of maps and mapping

  • B. Jiang
  • Physics
    Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci.
  • 2015
This article demonstrates that fractal thought is rooted in long-standing map-making practices such as series maps subdivision, visual hierarchy, and Töpfer’s radical law.

Topological Analysis of Urban Street Networks

It is shown that large urban street networks form small-world networks but exhibit no scale-free property.

Representations of Space and Time

It is a major premise of Peuquet's book that computer-based, spatial-temporal representations should be informed by human cognition, and her book divides her book into two (unequal) parts, possibly reflecting her belief that the balance in H-C interaction should be reversed.

The Image of the City out of the Underlying Scaling of City Artifacts or Locations

Two fundamental issues surrounding research on the image of the city focus on the city's external and internal representations. The external representation in the context of this article refers to

Ht-Index for Quantifying the Fractal or Scaling Structure of Geographic Features

This article proposes an alternative, ht-index, to quantify the fractal or scaling structure of geographic features, and discusses how hT-index is complementary to fractal dimension and elaborate on a dynamic view behind ht -index that enables better understanding of geographic forms and processes.