Who discovered the twin method?

  title={Who discovered the twin method?},
  author={R. Rende and R. Plomin and S. G. Vandenberg},
  journal={Behavior Genetics},
The twin method is usually credited to Francis Galton's 1875 article on twins. However, Galton did not propose the comparison between identical and fraternal twin resemblance which is the essence of the twin method. Although the twin method was “in the air” in the mid-1920s, the first descriptions of the method appeared in an article by Curtis Merriman and in a book by Hermann Siemens, both in 1924, 50 years after Galton's paper. 
Galton and the Use of Twin Studies
Galton was fascinated by twins. In this he was not unique, and throughout the ages people have both welcomed twins and feared them. The belief that twins were the possessors of supernatural powersExpand
Commentary: The birth of the twin study--a commentary on Francis Galton's 'The history of twins'.
  • J. Waller
  • Medicine, Biology
  • International journal of epidemiology
  • 2012
Galton could not in 1875 have invented the classical twin method based on this non-Mendelian theory of heredity because he did was to track the life-history changes of twins to see whether twins who were very similar at birth diverged in later life or whether twinsWho were very dissimilar at birth converged later, as a test of the relative importance of nature and nurture. Expand
Commentary: Discussion of ‘The history of twins, as a criterion of the relative powers of nature and nurture' by Francis Galton (1875).
  • N. Martin
  • Sociology, Medicine
  • International journal of epidemiology
  • 2012
The classical twin study, wherein the similarity of monozygotic (MZ) twins is compared with that of dizygotic (DZ) twins to estimate the heritability of a trait (proportion of total Variance due toExpand
Early Research on Human Genetics Using the Twin Method: Who Really Invented the Method?
  • O. Mayo
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Twin Research and Human Genetics
  • 2009
The twin method has now evolved to the point that twin registries constitute an important resource for the identification of specific genes and their interactions both with other genes and with the internal and external environment. Expand
Nature-Nurture Controversy, History of
The nature/nurture distinction originated with Francis Galton, who was also the first to realize that twin studies could provide a crucial test of the contributions of each. Both behaviorists andExpand
Advances in Twin and Sib-Pair Analysis.
This book is a useful reference for both the researcher new to the field of twin and sib-pair studies and the seasoned researcher seeking a convenient single source of information about many issuesExpand
Twins and the paradox of dental-age estimations: a caution for researchers and clinicians.
Results showed that dental age of monozygotic twins is not identical even if they share all their genes, which should lead to some circumspection in the interpretation of systematic estimations of dental age both in the clinical and forensic scenario. Expand
Twin—Singleton Differences in Intelligence: A Meta-Analysis
The effect shows considerable between-study heterogeneity but appears robust (fail-safe N calculations), was present since the very first published studies, and appears generalizable across sex, zygosity, and other intelligence domains beyond the verbal. Expand
Twin research, revisionism and metahistory
It is shown how important leaders of German twin research have been historically managed, and how their contributions have been distorted and omitted. Expand
Twin research, and its multiple births and expressions: a short, personal voyage through its scope, history, and organization.
  • P. Parisi
  • Sociology, Medicine
  • Twin research : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
  • 2004
An attempt to dig into personal memory and experience, and share some recollections of the main steps of the process, and particularly the evolution of the journal, the society, the international meetings, and their role in supporting the area's persistence and continuous revivals and adaptations until today. Expand


The History of Twins, as a Criterion of the Relative Powers of Nature and Nurture
In the article “The History of Twins, As a Criterion of the Relative Powers of Nature and Nurture,” Francis Galton [2] describes his study of twins. Published in 1875 in Fraser’s Magazine in London,Expand
The relative effect of nature and nurture influences on twin differences.
The data employed in this study consist of a portion of the material gathered for an extensive investigation of identical and fraternal twins. The measurements were made by Professor H. H. NewmanExpand
Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences
Abstract“HEREDITARY GENIUS” was first published in 1869 and conies second in the series of works in which Galton's investigations on inheritance were given to the public, being preceded in 1865 byExpand
English men of science : their nature and nurture
Introduced nature/nurture terminology and the questionnaire method into psychology. Francis Galton demonstrated the potential value of statistical analysis in evaluating the relative contributions ofExpand
The Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture Upon Mental Development; A Comparative Study of Foster Parent-Foster Child Resemblance and True Parent-True Child Resemblance
The investigation in hand approaches the aspect of the problem which concerns heredity and home environment through a comparison of mental test resemblances obtaining between parents and theirExpand
The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton
THE completion of this great “Life” of a great man is an achievement, and we wish to express what all interested must feel, that the library of science has been enriched in a very noble way. WeExpand
Mutants in Habrobracon.
Twins : heredity and environment