Who discovered the twin method?

  title={Who discovered the twin method?},
  author={Richard D. Rende and Robert Plomin and Steven G. Vandenberg},
  journal={Behavior Genetics},
The twin method is usually credited to Francis Galton's 1875 article on twins. However, Galton did not propose the comparison between identical and fraternal twin resemblance which is the essence of the twin method. Although the twin method was “in the air” in the mid-1920s, the first descriptions of the method appeared in an article by Curtis Merriman and in a book by Hermann Siemens, both in 1924, 50 years after Galton's paper. 

Galton and the Use of Twin Studies

Galton was fascinated by twins. In this he was not unique, and throughout the ages people have both welcomed twins and feared them. The belief that twins were the possessors of supernatural powers

Commentary: The birth of the twin study--a commentary on Francis Galton's 'The history of twins'.

  • J. Waller
  • Psychology
    International journal of epidemiology
  • 2012
Galton could not in 1875 have invented the classical twin method based on this non-Mendelian theory of heredity because he did was to track the life-history changes of twins to see whether twins who were very similar at birth diverged in later life or whether twinsWho were very dissimilar at birth converged later, as a test of the relative importance of nature and nurture.

Commentary: Discussion of ‘The history of twins, as a criterion of the relative powers of nature and nurture' by Francis Galton (1875).

  • N. Martin
  • Psychology
    International journal of epidemiology
  • 2012
The classical twin study, wherein the similarity of monozygotic (MZ) twins is compared with that of dizygotic (DZ) twins to estimate the heritability of a trait (proportion of total Variance due to

Early Research on Human Genetics Using the Twin Method: Who Really Invented the Method?

  • O. Mayo
  • Psychology
    Twin Research and Human Genetics
  • 2009
The twin method has now evolved to the point that twin registries constitute an important resource for the identification of specific genes and their interactions both with other genes and with the internal and external environment.

Advances in Twin and Sib-Pair Analysis.

This book is a useful reference for both the researcher new to the field of twin and sib-pair studies and the seasoned researcher seeking a convenient single source of information about many issues

Twins and the paradox of dental-age estimations: a caution for researchers and clinicians.

Twin—Singleton Differences in Intelligence: A Meta-Analysis

The effect shows considerable between-study heterogeneity but appears robust (fail-safe N calculations), was present since the very first published studies, and appears generalizable across sex, zygosity, and other intelligence domains beyond the verbal.

Twin research, revisionism and metahistory

It is shown how important leaders of German twin research have been historically managed, and how their contributions have been distorted and omitted.

Twin research, and its multiple births and expressions: a short, personal voyage through its scope, history, and organization.

  • P. Parisi
  • Psychology
    Twin research : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
  • 2004
An attempt to dig into personal memory and experience, and share some recollections of the main steps of the process, and particularly the evolution of the journal, the society, the international meetings, and their role in supporting the area's persistence and continuous revivals and adaptations until today.



The History of Twins, as a Criterion of the Relative Powers of Nature and Nurture

In the article “The History of Twins, As a Criterion of the Relative Powers of Nature and Nurture,” Francis Galton [2] describes his study of twins. Published in 1875 in Fraser’s Magazine in London,

The relative effect of nature and nurture influences on twin differences.

The data employed in this study consist of a portion of the material gathered for an extensive investigation of identical and fraternal twins, and a large number of criteria were used by Professor Newman in classifying twins according to these two types.

A comparative study of identical and non-identical twins with respect to intelligence resemblances.

The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in intelligence quotient ratings of siblings, from one to four years apart in chronological age, with those of twins, and to study the Differences in intellegence quotients in twins appearing very much alike and those appearing very .. different.

Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences

Abstract“HEREDITARY GENIUS” was first published in 1869 and conies second in the series of works in which Galton's investigations on inheritance were given to the public, being preceded in 1865 by

English men of science : their nature and nurture

Introduced nature/nurture terminology and the questionnaire method into psychology. Francis Galton demonstrated the potential value of statistical analysis in evaluating the relative contributions of

The Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture Upon Mental Development; A Comparative Study of Foster Parent-Foster Child Resemblance and True Parent-True Child Resemblance

The investigation in hand approaches the aspect of the problem which concerns heredity and home environment through a comparison of mental test resemblances obtaining between parents and their

The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton

THE completion of this great “Life” of a great man is an achievement, and we wish to express what all interested must feel, that the library of science has been enriched in a very noble way. We

Mutants in Habrobracon.

Wavy, "w, (wings). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Fused, f (antennae and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Measurement of Twins