Who built maslow’s pyramid? A history of the creation of management studies’ most famous symbol and its implications for management education

  title={Who built maslow’s pyramid? A history of the creation of management studies’ most famous symbol and its implications for management education},
  author={Todd Bridgman and Stephen Cummings and James Ballard},
  journal={Academy of Management Learning \& Education},
© Academy of Management Learning & Education. Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation, the idea that human needs exist in a hierarchy that people strive to satisfy progressively, is regarded as a fundamental approach to understanding and motivating people at work. It is one of the first and most remembered models encountered by students of management. Despite gaining little support in empirical studies and being criticized for promoting an elitist, individualistic view of management, Maslow’s… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Of Maslow, motives, and managers: The hierarchy of needs in American business, 1960-1985.
  • Kira Lussier
  • Psychology
    Journal of the history of the behavioral sciences
  • 2019
This paper examines the impact of psychologist Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs in American management. I trace how a roster of management experts translated the hierarchy of needs into management
Beyond Maslow's Pyramid: Introducing a Typology of Thirteen Fundamental Needs for Human-Centered Design
A design-focused typology of psychological human needs that includes 13 fundamental needs and 52 sub-needs (four for each fundamental need) is introduced that builds on the strengths of Maslow’s need hierarchy but rejects the hierarchical structure and adds granularity to the need categories.
Developing historical consciousness in management learners
This article argues and advocates strategies for the development of historical consciousness to stimulate both first- and second-order critical reflexivity in management students with the goal of
Leadership lessons untold: A new history of Robert McNamara’s World Bank
Leadership education can be reductionist and facile. Recent scholarship in management and organizational history has reexamined many of the most established business school concepts and literatures,
Sailing Away From the Pyramid: A Revised Visual Representation of Maslow’s Theory Z
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, in its pyramidal representation, is one of the most recognizable visual figures in psychology and management. Recently, there have been attempts to incorporate Maslow’s
The past masters: the impact of the evolution of management thought on history
Purpose The purpose of this article is to commemorate the 50th anniversary of evolution of management thought (EMT), a critically acclaimed text in management and organizational studies for its
Motivational Factors in Organisational Change
The presented paper gives an overview of the most important and most common theories and concepts from the economic field of organisational change and is also enriched with quantitative publication
The forgotten ‘immortalizer’: Recovering William H Whyte as the founder and future of groupthink research
Irving Janis’s concept of ‘groupthink’, the idea that a collective desire for consensus overrides the realistic appraisals of alternatives and leads to poor group decision making, is a staple of
Studies in Technology Enhanced Learning
Contributing to knowledge or theory is generally a standard requirement for research and doctoral studies. Whether that contribution should be from a research, policy or practice perspective is often
Ford’s metaphysics: On the Transcendental origins of Henry Ford’s Fordism
Since it was first articulated by Antonio Gramsci in his Prison Notebooks (1929–1935), Fordism has been understood at two interconnected levels. At one level, it is understood in secular materialist


History, historiography and organization studies: The challenge and the potential
Abstract What justification is there for a new organizational journal devoted to history? First, it is to be hoped that a contribution can be made in creating dialogue between the poorly connected
An empirical test of a new theory of human needs
The Right to Be Human: A Biography of Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) has been widely recognized as a great visionary of modern psychology and related social thought including business behaviour. This second edition of his biography explores
Situating Maslow in Cold War America
This article makes the case for situating understandings of Abraham Maslow and his ideas within Cold War America. After discussing the general significance of Maslow, we set out the historical
The right to be human and human rights: Maslow, McCarthyism and the death of humanist theories of management
Abstract This article is constructed around the counterfactual of Abraham Maslow being made to testify before a McCarthy-type investigation in the US Cold War era.We set out the extent to which
Maslow: man interrupted: reading management theory in context
Purpose – This paper aims to build on recent work in the field of management and historiography that argues that management theorizing needs to be understood in its historical
Motivation: That's Maslow, isn't it?
The method of the ethnographic experiment is explained and applied to the task of developing an understanding of how certain `standard management education content' is made use of by course members
Will the Real A. Smith Please Stand Up!
In both the public and the business world, in academe as well as in practice, the ideas of Adam Smith are regarded as the bedrock of modern economics. When present economic conditions and management
Maslow, monkeys andmotivation theory
  • Organization, 4(3): 355–373.
  • 1997