Who Receives a Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States Elementary School Population?

  title={Who Receives a Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States Elementary School Population?},
  author={Helen Schneider and Daniel Eisenberg},
  pages={e601 - e609}
OBJECTIVE. To investigate factors that are associated with the probability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis among U.S. elementary school children, including child, family, school, and policy factors. METHODS. Logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks associated with independent variables using a nationally representative sample of 9278 children in the 2002 follow-up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey–Kindergarten Cohort. Most children in the… 

Tables from this paper

National Estimates and Factors Associated With Medication Treatment for Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Current medication treatment among youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with white race, younger age, English spoken in the home, health care coverage, a health care contact within the last year, and reported psychological difficulties.

Positive Association Between Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Use and Academic Achievement During Elementary School

The finding of a positive association between medication use and standardized mathematics and reading test scores is important, given the high prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with low academic achievement.

Parental efficacy and child behavior in a community sample of children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children, and feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes.

Linguistic Inequities in ADHD Diagnosis among School-age Children Screened for Attention Problems in Primary Care

Children had higher odds of an ADHD diagnosis if they were English-speaking and had a documented Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale in their medical record, and Multilingual, parent-report screening for attention problems in Pediatrics does not mitigate linguistic inequities in ADHD diagnosis.

Early histories of school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

The findings support the concept that ADHD is a cognitive as well as a behavioral disorder.

The association of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with socioeconomic disadvantage

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly reported to be more prevalent in children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. In this thesis I will explore in more detail

Racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry.

Although they are not less likely to display ADHD-related behaviors, children who are Black or being raised in households where non-English is primarily spoken are less likely than otherwise similar White children to be diagnosed with ADHD in the US.



Is season of birth a risk factor for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?

There may be a seasonal pattern of birth for subtypes of ADHD if season of birth serves as a proxy for the timing of seasonally mediated viral infections, it may lead to a greater understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD.

Who First Suggests the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

Teachers and other school personnel are often the first to suggest the diagnosis of ADHD in children in the greater Washington, DC, area, which may be caused at least in part by variations in the likelihood of a teacher suggesting the diagnosis.

Current practice in the management of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD).

This study shows that the management of children with ADHD in Wirral Health Authority is compatible with NICE guidance, which is a significant burden on clinical services and long-term planning is required.

Barriers to detection, help-seeking, and service use for children with ADHD symptoms

Study findings indicate that although 88% of children were recognized as having a problem, only 39% had been evaluated, 32% received an ADHD diagnosis, and 23% received current treatment, suggesting the gap between parental problem recognition and seeking services may be different.

Identification of attentional and hyperactivity problems in primary care: a report from pediatric research in office settings and the ambulatory sentinel practice network.

Clinicians do not appear predisposed to label children from disadvantaged backgrounds as having AHPs, and primary care assessment of AHPs lacks standardization.

The relative importance of child, family, school and neighbourhood correlates of childhood psychiatric disorder

Individually assessed child and family factors may be more influential than aggregate measures of school and neighbourhood factors in determining which variables were independently associated with child psychiatric disorder.

Gender differences in ADHD: a meta-analysis and critical review.

  • M. GaubC. Carlson
  • Psychology
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • 1997
The need for future research examining gender differences in ADHD is strongly indicated, with attention to methodological limitations of the current literature, including the potential confounding effects of referral bias, comorbidity, developmental patterns, diagnostic procedures, and rater source.

Parental explanatory models of ADHD: gender and cultural variations.

More African-American than Caucasian parents were unsure about potential causes of and treatments for ADHD, indicating a need for culturally appropriate parent education approaches.

Assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review of recent literature.

There is no evidence at present to support use of psychologic testing, laboratory measures of attention, electroencephalography, or neuroimaging studies in the clinical assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.