Who Influences U.S. Foreign Policy?

  title={Who Influences U.S. Foreign Policy?},
  author={Lawrence R. Jacobs and Benjamin I. Page},
  journal={American Political Science Review},
  pages={107 - 123}
Research in international relations has identified a variety of actors who appear to influence U.S. foreign policy, including experts and “epistemic communities,” organized interests (especially business and labor), and ordinary citizens or “public opinion.” This research, however, has often focused on a single factor at a time, rather than systematically testing the relative importance of alternative possible influences. Using extensive survey data gathered over three decades we conduct a… 
Multilateralism and the Use of Force: Experimental Evidence on the Views of Foreign Policy Elites
International relations scholars have found that multilateral approval increases public support for the use of military force and have developed competing explanations for this phenomenon. However,
Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens
Each of four theoretical traditions in the study of American politics—which can be characterized as theories of Majoritarian Electoral Democracy, Economic-Elite Domination, and two types of
In Search of Soft Power: Does Foreign Public Opinion Matter for US Foreign Policy?
Does “soft power” matter in international relations? Specifically, when the United States seeks cooperation from countries around the world, do the views of their publics about US foreign policy
The Shape of Elite Opinion on U.S. Foreign Policy, 1992 to 2004
Research has demonstrated considerable diversity in the evolution of foreign policy beliefs of elite opinion leaders. Holsti and Rosenau's three-headed eagle, Wittkopf's four-headed eagle, and Rosati
The Study of Foreign Policy in International Relations
Foreign Policy decision-making is agreed to be one of the greatest instrument at a state’s disposal to pursue its national interests. It is considered as a full political activity of states. A good
The Informational Role of Foreign Lobbying in U.S. Foreign Aid: Is U.S. Assistance for Sale?
Research on U.S. foreign aid allocation has largely focused on the causal effects of donor strategic interests, recipient need, and domestic politics. But can foreign countries also influence the
The Role of Informational Lobbying in US Foreign Aid: Is US Assistance for Sale?
Research on U.S. foreign aid allocation has largely focused on the causal effects of donor strategic interests, recipient need, and domestic politics. But can foreign countries also influence the
Economic Inequality and Representation in the U.S. House A New Approach Using Population-Level Data
Are elected officials equally responsive to all of their constituents, or do they provide the most political representation to the wealthy? In recent years, this question has been the subject of
Measuring Political Inequality in the American States
There is growing concern that the United States is an “unequal democracy” in terms of who exerts influence over the policy decisions made by elected officials. However, to date there have been few
Without Heirs? Assessing the Decline of Establishment Internationalism in U.S. Foreign Policy
Is establishment internationalism in decline? Conventional wisdom is becoming that structural shifts in the international environment along with generational, demographic, and cultural changes within


Neoclassical realism and theories of foreign policy
Although international relations theory has been dominated for two decades by debates over theories of international politics, recently there has been a surge of interest in theories of foreign
The Media and Foreign Policy
The conduct of international relations is greatly influenced by how relationships between countries are perceived, which in turn depends upon communications between countries. Among the main
Faces of Internationalism: Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy
In Faces of Internationalism, Eugene R. Wittkopf examines the changing nature of public attitudes toward American foreign policy in the post-Vietnam era and the role that public opinion plays in the
On world politics
Asian newly industrializing countries to highlight the contribution of cohesive and autonomous states in the resolution of market failures. Within an explicit collective action and public goods
Invested interests: the politics of national economic policies in a world of global finance
Capital moves more rapidly across national borders now than it has in at least fifty years and perhaps in history. This article examines the effects of capital mobility on different groups in
The Impact of Public Opinion on U.S. Foreign Policy Since Vietnam: Constraining the Colossus
Public Opinion in American Foreign Policy examines the role that public attitudes have played over the last generation in the making of United States foreign policy. It focuses on four of the most
Defining the National Interest: Conflict and Change in American Foreign Policy
The United States has been marked by a highly politicized and divisive history of foreign policy-making. This study asks why the nation's leaders find it so difficult to define the national interest.
Projections of power : framing news, public opinion, and U.S. foreign policy
Robert M. Entman develops a powerful new model of how media framing works-a model that allows him to explain why the media cheered American victories over small-time dictators in Grenada and Panama but barely noticed the success of far more difficult missions in Haiti and Kosovo.
Bureaucratic politics and American foreign policy: A critique
Bureaucracies, we are told, have become central to the forging and wielding of American foreign policy, but with consequences adverse to the substance of that policy.* In the words of a past critic
The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations
John Maynard Keynes once observed that the "ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood." The