Who's that lady?

  title={Who's that lady?},
  author={Jim Oxford and Armine Sefton and Richard Jackson and Niall Philip Alan Sean Johnson and Rodney S. Daniels},
  journal={Nature Medicine},
An analysis of scientific and social literature suggests that army bases located in France and the UK may be responsible for the worldwide distribution of the 'Spanish Lady' influenza pandemic of 1918. 

Not the great equalizers: Covid-19, 1918–20 influenza, and the need for a paradigm shift in pandemic preparedness

Arguing in favour of a transdisciplinary paradigm that recognizes socially defined risk groups, includes input from the social sciences and humanities and other diverse perspectives, and contributes to the reduction of health disparities before a pandemic hits is argued.

Pandemic Flu: Current Threat and Development of a Preparedness Framework

This paper develops a framework for pandemic preparedness for organizations, including employee health and welfare, ethical and legal issues, business continuity, and partnerships with government and civil society.

The Economic Effects of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic

The 1918-19 influenza epidemic killed at least 40 million people worldwide and 675,000 people in the United States, far exceeding the combat deaths experienced by the US in the two World Wars, Korea,

The 1918 influenza epidemic's effects on sex differentials in mortality in the United States.

It is conjecture the existence of a selection effect, whereby many 1918 influenza deaths were among tuberculous persons, so that tuberculosis death rates dropped in later years, disproportionately among males, and an analysis of causes of deaths shows a link with tuberculosis.

Effects of the Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19 on Later Life Mortality of Norwegian Cohorts Born About 1900

Spanish Influenza 1918-19 is the most important of several possible factors priming the Norwegian cohorts and the net effect on later life mortality is thus assumed to be that of debilitation.

The spatial anatomy of an epidemic: influenza in London and the county boroughs of England and Wales, 1918–1919

From uncertain origins in the spring of 1918, an apparently new variant of influenza A virus spread around the world as three distinct diffusion waves, infecting half a billion and probably killing

Impact of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Coastal Kenya

Preparation for the next pandemic requires continued improvement in surveillance, education about influenza vaccines, and efforts to prevent, detect and respond to novel influenza outbreaks.

‘I Want to Wear It’: Fashioning Black Feminism in Mahogany (1975)

ABSTRACT In this article I focus on the portrayal of fashionable clothing in the 1975 film Mahogany and connect it to the history of African American women engaging with sartorial self-representation

Spanskesyken i Norge 1918 – 19

This article points at conditions in Norway at the time of Spanish flu that may have contributed to the severity of the outbreak and the virus causing the pandemic.



Death and disease in Southeast Asia : explorations in social, medical and demographic history

From a 'decoding' of ancient Balinese myths to the careful computation of mortality rates for the modern Philippines, these essays extend our understanding of South-east Asian history.

The 1918 'Spanish' flu: pearls from swine?

An unexpected marriage between modern biological technology and past records suggests that the influenza A (H1N1) viruses are a long-established family from China, not Spain.

In Search of Divine Presence: Some Remarks Preliminary to a Theology of Wisdom

The task envisioned in this essay is a modest one: to provide some preliminary observations about a theology of Israel's wisdom literature. I Any attempt to understand the theological perspective of

The 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic— The Indian Experience

  • I. Mills
  • Economics
    The Indian economic and social history review
  • 1986
’ Jordan,’ writing in the 1920s, and using only the available uncorrected data, estimated that global deaths during the influenza pandemic totalled over 21.5 million, resulting from over one billion cases (more than half the world’s population), in a total time period of less than two years.

Initial Genetic Characterization of the 1918 “Spanish” Influenza Virus

A novel H1N1 influenza A virus that belongs to the subgroup of strains that infect humans and swine, not the avian subgroup is identified.

Origin and evolution of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus hemagglutinin gene.

Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the 1918 virus HA gene, although more closely related to avian strains than any other mammalian sequence, is mammalian and may have been adapting in humans before 1918.

Human infection with influenza H9N2

A novel mechanism for the acquisition of virulence by a human influenza A virus.

  • H. GotoY. Kawaoka
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
It is demonstrated that neuraminidase, the second major protein on the virion surface, binds and sequesters plasminogen, leading to higher local concentrations of this ubiquitous protease precursor and thus to increased cleavage of the HA.

Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus