Whiteness: photometric specification and colorimetric evaluation.

@article{Ganz1976WhitenessPS,
  title={Whiteness: photometric specification and colorimetric evaluation.},
  author={E. Ganz},
  journal={Applied optics},
  year={1976},
  volume={15 9},
  pages={2039-58}
}
Though basic problems of the perception of whiteness are as yet unsolved, this paper attempts to survey the present state and the requirements of industrial whiteness measurement. Generic formulas with adjustable parameters for the evaluation of whiteness and tint are presented.